force exerted by the blood against the aterial vessel walls
What factors makeup BP?
-Diastolic (ventricles relaxed & heart rested)
1st sound heard when taking BP is called?
Last sound (Karortkoff)heard when taking BP?
What factors affect BP?
-Peripheral vascular resistance (BP=CO x R)
-Elasticity and distensibility
Where is BP taken?
Upper arm closest to heart 1 inch above brachial
What type of equipment is needed to take accurate BP?
sphygmomanometer and stethoscope
What factors can cause an inaccurate BP reading?
-Bladder or cuff too wide, narrow, or short
-Cuff wrapped loosely or unevenly
-Deflatting cuff too slowly or quickly
-Arm below or above heart level
-Arm not supported
Normal BP reading?
< 120 and < 80
(129/88 considered normal above that is pre hypertensive)
>140/90 and symptomatic
< 90/60 and symptomatic (light headed, pale, decreased level of consciousness)
Define pulse oximetry?
non invasive measurement of arterial blood oxygen saturation (percent which hemoglobin is filled with O2)
Normal Pulse oximetry value?
> 90% (normal SpO2 is > 90%)
What equipment needed to obtain pulse oximetry reading?
Factors that give you a false pulse oximetry reading?
-carbon monoxide poisoning
-conditions that decrease blood flow (hypothermia, edema, hypotension)
-artificial nails & certain nail colors
Purpose of monitoring blood glucose levels?
check to see if hyper or hypoglycemic
check parameters for treating blood glucose
Normal BS range?
Where do you obtain a BS sample from?
capillary sample (in adults the lateral side of finger)
presence or level of glucose in one's blood
abnormal low levels of blood sugar (glucose)
high blood sugar
measurment of liquids ingested or infused into body (including liquids, semi liquids, liquid meds, enteral tube feedings, IV therapy, blood components, and parenteral nutrition)
Examples of intake?
oral fluids (@ rm temp)
ice chips (measured at 50% of measured volume)
IV fluids & TPN
Fluid Meds (oral or IV)
all liquids exerted from body
Urinary (urinals, bed pans, caths)
Drainage tubes (wounds, CT)
How do you measure intake and output?
chest tube, amt in oral/IV fluid, urine output, emesis/puking, diarrhea, wound drainage. When indicated you total the value and evaluate the I & O at the end of each shift at specified time,s usually 8 hrs.
What is importance in taking input & output?
physical assessment d/t changes w/n pt (ie:if they are putting out more then in)
Define components of fluid balance?
Fluid Volume Deficit: output greater then intake, < BP, > pulse, fever, flat neck veins when supine, slow venous filling of hands, rapid wt loss, dry skin, and tenting.