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What is anatomical position?
Standard reference position of the body.
The body stands facing you, the upper limbs hang by the sides with the palms of the hands facing forward, the feet are directed straight ahead.
Anterior surface, ventral surface.
The front surface of a body in anatomical position.
Posterior surface, dorsal surface.
The back surface of a body in anatomical position.
Palmar surface ( think palm )
Palmar surface is the palm, front of the hand.
Back of the hand could be referred to as dorsal surface.
The sole of the foot.
The top of the foot would be called the dorsal surface of the foot.
When referencing the foot "dorsal" would mean the top of the foot.
The outside surface.
The inside surface.
Median plane, midsagittal plane.
The plane that runs from top (head) to bottom of body, dividing the body into left and right halves.
Refering to something on the body as medial would be saying that it is toward this plane in the body, toward the midline.
Nipple is more medial than the shoulder.
Sagittal planes, parasagittal planes.
Planes parallel to the median plane. Any top to bottom plane that divides the body into uneven left and right sections. These planes will be to the left or right of the medial plane.
Frontal planes, coronal planes.
Frontal planes run from head to toe at right angles to the median plane, dividing the body into front and back parts, this is not necesarily a center plane.
Horizontal planes, transverse planes.
Horizontal planes run through the body parallel to the ground at right angles to the median, sagittal, and frontal planes. They divide the body into upper and lower parts.
When a body or body part is sliced along an anatomical plane the resulting slice is called a section. The actual division between the two parts is itself the section.
A section along a sagittal plane will create a medial ( towards the middle ) and lateral ( away from the middle ) surfaces.
An oblique section is a section made diagonally between the vertical and horizontal planes. A section made not perpendicular to median or transverse planes. Oblique sections are not often used.
Superior, cranial. Top.
The head end of the body, or toward the head end of the body. The trachea is more superior / cranial than the sternum.
Inferior, caudal. Bottom.
The foot end or towards the foot end of the body. The shin is more inferior than the knee.
Anterior, ventral. Front
The front part of the body, towards the front surface of the body, the chest.
The back surface of the body, toward the back surface of the body.
Towards the medial plane.
Away from the medial plane.
Toward the origin of the structure.
In regard to an arm, toward the shoulder is proximal. The elbow is more proximal than the hand.
Distal. Think distant.
Away from the origin of the structure. In regard to the arm the hand is more distal than the elbow. Think distal = distant.
Toward the outersuface of the body or a structure / organ. For the chest, the sternum is superficial to the heart. Away from the center.
Away from the outer surface, toward the center. For the chest, the heard is deep to the sternum.
On the same side.
On opposite sides.
- Anterial = towards the front
- Superior = towards the head
Anterosuperior = towards the front and towards the head.
Structure as it appears when viewed from the side. Viewed laterally.
Structures as it appeards when viewed from the median plane, or viewed medially.
Structure as it appears when viewed from above. Viewed superiorly.
Structure as it appears when viewed from below. Viewed inferiorly.
Structure as it appears when viewed from the front. Viewed anteriorly.
Structure as it appears when viewed from the back. Viewed posteriorly.
Structure as it appears when viewed from the front. Viewed from the outside.
Structure as it appears when viewed from the inside. Viewed from deep aspect.
Structure as it appears when viewed from the outside. Viewed from external aspect.
Structure as it appears when viewed from the inside. Viewed from internal aspect.
Soma. Somatic (adj)
Soma refers to the body wall; bone, muscle, and skin. The shell. All the things that keep the soft, squishy organs safe inside.
Viscus. Viscera(pl), visceral (adj)
The soft squishy organs.
Space enclosed by the cranium. It contains: the brain, its connective tissue coverings, meninges, cerebrospinal fluid ( CSF )
The tubular space enclosed by the vertebrae. Contains: spinal cord, its connective tisue coverings, meninges, spina nverves, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
Space enclosed by the thorax. Diaphragm makes up the bottom of this cavity. Contains: heart, lungs, esophagus, trachea, thymus.
Mediastinum - the wall between the lungs, it is actually a space that contains the heart, trachea, esophogus, thymus, blood vessels, nerves, and connective tissues.
- The wall between the lungs, it is actually a space that contains the heart, trachea, esophogus, thymus, blood vessels, nerves,
- and connective tissues.
The diaphragm makes up the top of this cavity, connects to the pelvic cavity. Contains: liver, pancreas, stomach, small and most of large intestines, kidneys, upper ureters, adrenal glands, spleen.
Space surrounded by the pelvis, connects to the abdominal cavity, pelvic diaphragm ( a sheet of muscles ) makes up the bottom of it. Divided into two parts: upper pelvis major ( false pelvis ) and lower pelvis minor ( true pelvis ).
The abdominal and pelvic cavities together. Since they are connected to each other they are sometimes referred to together as abdominopelvic cavity.
Head, otherwise known as...
Caput (n), capitis (adj)
Slightly different from cranium. The cranium refers to the bones that of the skull that surround the brain.
The facial bones form the foundation of the face. Together they make up the caput, or head.
Neck, otherwise kown as...
Cervix (n), cervical (adj)
Rib cage, otherwise known as...
Thorax (n), thoracic (adj). This is the ribs, sternum, and thoracic vertabrae.
Pectoral, otherwise known as...
Abdomen, otherwise known as...
Abdomen. :) In anatomy divided into four parts divided by a line from sternum to pelvis and another through the belly button, navel. This forms upper left, right, lower left, right.
In medicine the abdomen is divided into nine sections:
- right hypochondriac
- left hypochondriac
- right lumbar
- left lumbar
- right iliac
- left iliac
Lumbar, otherwise known as...
The small of the back.
Pelvis, otherwise known as...
Pelvis :) Or hips and sacrum and coccyx.
Perineum, otherwise known as...
The area between thr thighs that contain the external genitals, and openings for anus, vagina, and urethra.
Gluteal, otherwise known as...
Butt. ( tee hee )
Scapular... ( upper limb )
The region of the shoulder blade.
Axilla... ( upper limb )
Pyramidal space between arm and thorax, armpit makes up its floor.
Deltoid... ( upper limb )
The shoulder region, area covered by the deltoid muscle.
Brachium... ( upper limb )
The upper arm, the part of the arm between the shoulder and elbow.
Antebracheum... ( upper limb )
The forearm, between the wrist and elbow.
Carpus... ( upper limb )
Thigh... ( lower limb )
Part of leg between hip and knee. Femoral (adj)
Knee, genu (n), genicular (adj)
Popliteal ( lower limb )
Diamond shaped area behind the knee.
The part of the leg between the knee and ankle - crus (n), crural (adj)
Tarsal ( lower limb )
Posterior part of the foot, back part of the foot, the heel and ankle.
Pes ( lower limb )
Digits ( lower limb )
Hallux... ( lower limb )
The big toe. :)
Mucose membrane, mucosae ( mucosa - singular )
Lining membranes producing a film of mucus that covers their surfaces.
Mucous is made up mostly of mucins ( proteins ) and water.
Nasal mucosa, stomach mucosa, intestinal mucosa, ora mucosa
Serous Membranes or Serosae ( serosa - singular )
Membranes producing a watery solution.
- Usually arranged in two layers:
- perietal layer - the outer layer
- visceral layer - the inner layer
- A watery fluid fills a cavity between the layers.
Pericardia ( serosa membrane ) pericardium ( singular ) pericardial ( adj )
Serous membranes enveloping the heart.
- Parietal pericardium
- Visceral pericardium
- Pericardial cavity filled with serous fluid between them
Peritoneum ( serous membrane ) peritoneal ( adj ) peritonea (pl)
Serous membranes lining the walls of the abdominoplevic cavity and covering the outer surfaces of the soft organs that occupy it.
- Parietal peritoneum
- visceral peritoneum
- peritoneal cavity filled with serous fluid between them
Pleurae ( serous membranes ) pleura ( singular ), pleural ( adj )
Serous membranes that line the thoracic cavity walls and cover the lungs.
- Parietal pleura
- Visceral pleura
- pleural cavity filled with serous fluid between them
Meninges ( membranes ) meninx ( singular )
Connective tissue membranes that line the cranial cavity and envelop the brain.
Human body plan, similarities in humans, human embryos to other life forms...
- Tube within a tube:
- Inner tube - Tube from mouth to anus including respiratory and digestive organs. Outer tube - axial skeleton ( head, neck, trunk ), muscles, and nervous structure.
Bilateral symmetry - Most of left and right half of the body are mirror images of each other.
Dorsal hollow nerve cord - Hollow nerver cord that develops into brain and spinal cord.
Notochord and vertebrae - Notochord is a stiffening rod in the back just deep to the spinal cord. Most of this becomes back bone during development but bits of it become the cores of the discs between the vertebrae.
Segmentation - Outer tube of the body shows evidence of segmentation. Rib cage is made up of segments of ribs, spine made up of segments of vertebrae, nerves branching off as segments of the spinal cord.
Pharyngeal pouches - Pharynx is the throat region. In embryo stage these correspond to the gills on a fish. The pharyngeal pouches develp into structures in the head and neck.
- RH|E |LH
- RL| U|LL
- RI |H |LI
- RH - Right Hypochondriac
- E - Epigastric
- LH - Left Hypochondriac
- RL - Right lumbar
- U - Umbilical
- LL - Left lumbar
- RI - Right Iliac
- H - Hypogastric
- LI - Left Iliac