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Compare and contrast the endocrine and nervous systems
- the nervous system is fast acting over a short amount of time while the endocrine system is slow reacting over a long period of time
- the nervous system controls the body through electrical messages while the endocrine system controls the body through chemical messages or hormones
- the nervous system is directly connected to the affected organ or nerve while the endocrine system while the endocrine system is ductless. hormones travel through your blood to the organs
What are the funcitons of the endocrine system?
- regulates metabolic processes such as the fates of reactions
- transports substances through the membranes
- regulates the water concentration in the body
- growth and development
What is the endocrine system controlled by?
What are hormones?
chemicals secreted by the cell that have and effect on other cells or tissues
What does each hormone have when it comes to binding?
each hormone has a specific shape that can only bind to target cells
How do hormones often combine?
in antagonistic pairs
how do hormones work?
through feedback loops
What are feedback loops usually?
negative, meaning antagonistic pairs that regulate reactions, one goes up, one goes down
What is one of the few hormone pairs that works through a positive feedback loop?
the uterus during birth, keeps dialating
What are the three types of hormones?
- Steroid hormones
- Amino Acid Derivatives
What are steroids also known as?
the sex hormones (estrogen, progesterone)
What are steroids made from?
lipids of cholesterol
How are steroids inhibited?
What are amino acid derivatives also known as?
epinephrine or adrenaline
What are amino acid derivatives or epinepherine made from?
What are peptides made up of?
protiens or amino acids combined together
Peptides are the ____ group of hormones in the body
What are the 11 endocrine glands?
- Pituitary Gland
- Thyroid Gland
- Parathyroid Gland
- Pineal Gland
- Adrenal Gland
What is the pituitary gland also known as?
the master gland
Where is the pituitary gland?
In the brain
What does the pituitary gland do?
secrets hormones that go to other endocrine glands that cause them to secrete their hormones
What are the two parts of the pituitary gland?
- anterior pituitary (adenohypophsis lobe)
- posterior pitutiary (neurohypophysis lobe)
What are the hromones of the anterior pituitary gland?
- Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone (ACTH)
- Growth Hormone (GH)
- Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
- Prolactin (PRL)
- Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (MSH)
What is the adrenocorticotrophic hormone?
- it acts on the adrenal gland (the adrenal gland is its target in other words)
- it causes the adrenal glands to inhibit glucocorticoids
What is the Growth Hormone?
- affects or targets all cells of the body
- causes protien synthesis and growth
What is the Thyroid Stimulate Hormone?
- stimulates the thyroid gland-its target
- causes the thyroid gland to release thyroid hormones
What are Gonadotropins?
- Two types:
- Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH): goes to ovary, causes follicle to develope
- Lutenizing Hormone (LH): Goes to the ovary and causes ovulation
What is Prolactin?
stimulates the mamorary glands to produce milk
What is the melanocyte stimulating hormone? (MSH)
- causes the melanocytes to produce melanin
- causes a tan (protection from sun)
What are the hormones of the Posterior Pituitary Gland?
- Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
What is the Antidiuretic Hormone?
- target is kidneys
- causes the kidneys to reabsorb/release water
What is Oxytocin?
causes the muscles of the uterus to contract and push out the baby
What is the Hypothalmus?
the portion of the brain that controls the master (pituitary) gland
The Hypothalmus has...
nerve cells that signal to release or not release the hormone
What does the Hypothalmus do?
synthesizes/makes the hormones that are stored in the posterior pituitary
What is the Pineal Gland?
small oval shaped gland
Where is the pineal gland located?
deep in the cerevral hemispheres of the brain
What does the Pineal Gland do?
What is melatonin?
- goes to melanocytes
- makes you tan
Where is the thyroid gland?
located on the sides and just below your larynx and in front of the trachea
What shape does the thyroid gland have?
a shielded shape
What does the thyroid gland do?
secretes many hormones
What do the hormones secreted by the thyroid gland control?
- your metabolic rates
- your body temperature
- promotes growth of body cells (how large they get, weight)
What hormones are secreted by the thryroid gland?
What does Calcitonin?
- hormone that decreases the calcium levels in your blood
- increases the calcium levels stored in your bones
What is Thyroxin?
controls metabolic rates
What do you need in your diet for thyroid hormones to work?
What will form if there is not enough iodine in your diet for your thyroid hormones?
What is a goiter?
a swelling in the neck due to a lack of iodine
What are the Parathyroid glands?
four tiny, oval shaped glands
Where are the Parathyroid Glands located?
on the dorsal side of the thyroid glands
What do the parathyroid glands do?
regulate calcium metabolism in the body
What hormone does the parathyroid glands secrete?
PTH: Parathyroid Hormone
What does the parathyroid hormone do?
- increases the level of calcium in the blood
- works against calcitonin
- decreases the level of calcium stored in the bones
What does the thymus gland secrete?
secretes hormones called thymosins
What do Thymosins do?
cause the T-cells of the immune system to mature and develop
What hormone does the heart secrete?
secretes atrial natriuretic peptide
What does atrial natriuretic peptide do?
regulates water balance in your body
What hormones does the pancrease secrete?
What are the Islets of Langerhans?
- cells in the pancreas that secrete the hormones
- see picture
- broken up into three types of cells
What are the three types of cells that the Islets of Langerhans are broken up into?
- Alpha Cells
- Beta Cells
- Delta Cells
What do the alpha cells secrete? what does this hormone do?
- secrete glucagon
- --->converts glycogen into glucose
What hormone do beta cells secrete? What does this hormone do?
- secrete insulin
- --->converts glucose to glycogen
What horome do Delta Cells secrete? What does this hormone do?
- secretes/produces somatostatin
- --->inhibits the secretion of glucagon and insulin
- --->keeps blood sugar level as is
What are the Adrenal Glands?
- pyramid shaped organs that are located on the top of the kidneys
- secretes 2 hormones
What hormones do the aderenal glands secrete?
What do erythropotinand renin do?
regulate water balance in the body
What are the two layers of the adrenal glands?
- Cortex layer: outer layer
- Medulla layer: inner layer
What does the cortex layer of the adrenal glands contain?
What are the three sublayers of the cortex layer of the adrenal glands?
- Zona Glomenulosa: top layer
- Zona Fasciculata: middle layer
- Zona Reticularis: bottom layer
What do the sublayers of the cortex layer of the adrenal glands make?
- corticosteroid hormones
- --->corticosteroids are anti-inflammatory
What does Zona Glomenulosa (top layer) do?
What does aldosterone do?
controls the reabsorption of sodium (Na+) ions in water in the kidneys
What does Zona Fasciculata (middle layer) do?
What do glucocorticoids do?
affects clucose, fatty acids, and protien metabolism
What does Zona Reticularis (bottom layer) do?
What do androgens do?
- male hormones
- stimulate the development of the reproductive organs
What does the medulla layer secrete?
What are the hormones of catecholamines?
What is epinepherine also known as?
What is norepinpherine?
causes your body to prepare for the fight or flight response
What causes the medulla layer to secrete the hormones epinepherine and norepinepherine?
- low blood sugar
What hormone does the testis produce
What does Testosterone do?
- regulates sperm production
- regulates general male growth stuff (facial hair, etc)
What hormone do the ovaries produce?
What does estrogen do?
controls the development of the ova
What does Progesterone do?
promotes the growth of the uterus lining