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What are six differences betwen eukaryotic and prokaryote organisms?
- - prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus and eukaryotic cells do.
- - prokaryotic cells lack some organelles and eukaryotic cells do not.
- - prokaryotic cells are not found in humans and eukaryotic cells are.
- - prokaryotic cells are always unicellular and eukaryotic cells are often multicellular.
- - prokaryotic cells reproduce/divide by binary fission and eukaryotic cells reproduce/divide by mitosis/meiosis
- - Eukarotic organisms are usualy larger and more complex
What four group does the domain eukarya contain?
Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia
Protist is a generic term that is used to refer to eukaryotes that are not plants, animals or fungi.
Where do protists play major roles in?
Protists are nutritionally diverse what are the three names for their diversity? and define each one
1. photoautotrophic = organisms that use light as an energy source to synthesize organic compounds from inorganic materials
2. heterotrophic = organisms dependent on obtaining organic material from the environment because they are unable to synthesize organic material
3. mixotrophs = a combination of both heterotrophic and photosynthetic nutrition
A group of organisms believed to have evolved from a common ancestor
What is this? And how is this parasite caught by humans? What can it cause?
Giardia is a parasite that ibhabits the intestine of mammals. The parasite is ingested by drinking water that is contaminated with feces. Giardiasis can cause severe diarrhea.
What are two members of the euglenozoa clade?
- 1. Trypanosomes
- 2. Euglena
What is this called? What is it? How is it transmitted and what does it cause?
AND what are the round ghostlike structures ?
Trypanosomes are the single-celled parasits transmitted by the tse-tse fly that cause African Sleeping Sickness
The round ghostlike structures are blood cells
What unique feature does Englenoza clade have and what is it?
It has a Kinetoplast = disk-shaped mass of circular DNA inside large mitochondrion that contains many copes of mitochondrial genome
What is it? What causes this organism to move? and is it a photoautotroph, heterotroph or mixotroph? and explain .
Euglena, the falgella causes the movement. It is a mixotroph because in sunlight it is a photoautotroph (Photosynthesis happens in the chloroplasts) but when there is no sunlight it is heterotrophic(absorbs their food)
Give three examples of the Alveolata clade
- 1. Dinoflagellates
- 2. Plasmodium
- 3. Paramecium
What organism is this? Define it, what important component is it used for? Under certain conditions this organism can reproduce very rapidly.
What is that resulted in?
And what type of poisoning is associated with that result?
How do you get that poisoning?
Dinoflagellates are motile photosynthetic organisms taht are very important component of the marine cosystem.
The uncontrolled reproduction can result in what is known as "Red Tide"
"Red Tide" can cause paralytic shellfish poisoning.
An individual can get this poisoning by eating shellfish which has fed on toxic dinoflagellates.
What is this? What sickness does it cause? And how does this parasite cause the sickness?
This parasite infects the red blood cells of the host adn reproduces rapidly. As the parasites burst out of the red blood cells, destroying them, the host experiences the characteristic fever and chillso f malaria.
This is paramecium. It uses its cillia for locomotion. Its from the clade alveolata.
What are the 9 main clades of protist? and give examples of each.
- 1. Diplomonadida - giardia
- 2. Euglenozoa -trypanosomes, euglena
- 3.Alveolata - dinoflagellates, pasmodium, paramecium
- 4. Foraminifera - forams(foraminiferans)
- 5. Radiolaria - radiolarians
- 6. Amoebozoa - amoeba, Dictyostelium
- 7. Stramenopila - diatoms, brown algae
- 8. Rhodophyta - Red algae
- 9. Chlorophyta - green algae
What is this?
What clade is it from?
This single-celled organism has porous shells made out of what?
Foraminiferans, commonly known as FOrams, are single-celled organisms that have porous shells made out of CaCO3.
What is this?
What are some characteristics of this organism?
Radiolarians, thesse organisms have an intricate skeleton of silical. Slender, straight pseudopodia radiate from the skeleton. The pseudopodia are covered with a layerof sytoplasm that engulfs smaller microorganisms.
What is this?
What is a common characteristic common to this clade?
- Amoebozoa is the common AMoeba.
- Common characteristic: Have lobe or tube like-shaped pseudopodia.
What are the two types of slime molds that are members of Amoebozoa? and why are they called "molds"?
1. plasmodial slime molds and cellular slime molds. They are called "molds" because they were once calssifed as fungi (Because they produced spores)
What is Plasmodial slime molds?
One huge multinucleate cell taht flows across the soil surface engulfing food
Physarum is the yellow-net-like material. = plasmodium
The oatmeal flakes are just food.
What is the feeding stage of a plasmodial slime mold called?
Plasmodium , plasmodia?
What are some key characteristics taht differ cellular slime molds from Plasmodial slime molds?
- 1. Cellular slime molds are made of many individual cells.
- 2. When there is enough food, the indiviudal cells are amoeboid and operate independently.
- 3. When food is scarce the amoeboid cells cluster together and move to a new location(as a unit)
- 4. The cell cluster eventually stops moving and reforms in a sporangium.
What isthe fucntion os amoeba in the stages of the cellular slime mold life cycle?
The engulf food(bacteria)
What is this?
Which part of it is the sporangia?
Dictyostelium the sporangia is the 3D metal balls(Think water drops)
What is a common characteristic of stramenopila clade?
They have shell made of glass-like silica
The Diatoms are critical members of what ecosystem?
What is this?
What are the cell walls made of?
List two ways these are used commercially
- Diatoms cell walls are made of silica.
- Two ways diatoms are used commercially:
- 1. toothpaste
- 2. insecticide
What can the sharp edges of diatoms used for?
the porous of shells?
Sharp edges of diatoms: sparkle in white paint, insecticide
shell: match heads, toothpaste, good car polish
porous shells: used as filters for swimming pools and making beer
What are the multicellular members of the stramenopila clade?
Where do most of them live?
What causes their brownish appearance?
Brown Algae, most of them live in salt water
flucoxanthin cause their brownish appearance.
What are the main pigments found in brown algae?
fucoxanthin, chlorophyll a and c
How do brown algae get sunlight for photosynthesis?
They are these large protists that often have air bladders that act as floats. The floats keep them near the surface of the water so they are exposed to sunlight for photosynthesis
Why are kelp able to grow to such a size despite the fact that they have no vascular tissue transporting water and nutrients along their great lengths?(Their tissues are relatively thin)
Because the nutrients needed by the kelp is close to it(surrounded by it) so it doesn'tneed vascular tissue.
What pigments are in Red Algae?
chlorophyll a and phycoerythrin
What makes Red Algae Red?
What important photosynthetic role, related to habitat, is played by their accessory pigment?
It allows them to absorb blue and green light which penetrate relatively far into the water
List four commercial uses of algae
Seaweed, frozen yogurt, cream cheese, thickener in foods
What is the main characteristic of the chlorophyta?
They are coloured GREEN
What are the main pigments found in chlorophyta?
Compare them pigments found in plants.
Chlorophyll a and b
Plants have these pigments too!
What are the four morphological types of chlorophyta and example of each?
- 1. unicellular organism - chlamydomonas
- 2. filament - spirogyra
- 3. colony - volvox
- 4. sheet like - ulva