Card Set Information
BPharm PKin Baski
How do you find k
(the zero order elimination constant)?
t + C
where C is concentration at time t
is initial concentraion
where t is any time
What does ln =?
k = ?
BP analyzes the interrelationship among the physiochemical properties of the drug, the dosage form, the route of administration and the rate and extent of drug absorption into systemic circulation.
PK deals with the kinetics of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs. What does the body do to the drug?
What does the drug do to the body?
_______ can be either paracellular or transcellular?
What is the degree of ionization controlled by? (3 things)
pH of surrounding aqueous phase
whether the drug is a weak acid or a weak base
What is typical pH of stomach?
What are the factors that affect oral absorption?
disintegration of dosage form
dissolution of particles
chemical stability of drug
stability of drug to enzymes
motility and mixing in GI tract
presence and type of food
blood flow to GI tract
gastric emptying time
the study of the physical and chemical properties of drugs and their proper dosage as related to the onset, duration, and intensity of drug action under physiological or pathophysiological conditions
Define MRT (mean residence time).
the average total time molecules of a given dose spend in the body
Define AUMC. (area under the moment curve)
integral of product of time and plasma concentration
the time after administration of drug at which Cmax is observed
measure of the rate of absorption
the observed maximum concentration of drug
measure of both the rate of absorption and the extent of drug available in systemic circulation
area under the concentration-time curve
measure of the extent of drug available in systemic circulation
What is polymorphism?
the existence of a substance in more than one crystalline form
What is the order for dissolution rate of polymorphs?
Which has more energy, stable polymorph or metastable?
measure of void spaces
What does the angle of repose measure?
What is the rate limiting step of absorption?
What is the biggest factor that contributes to delay in drug absorption in the body?
What are the 3 theories of drug dissolution?
1. Film Theory
2. Danckwert's model
3. Interfacial Barrier model
Define partition coefficient.
the ratio of distribution of a solute between the 2 phases of 2 immiscible liquids that are in contact with each other
(water and lipid)
what is the active carrier process for cations and anions in the kidney?
What is the first step in renal drug excretion?
What MW are drugs that are excreted into the bile?
What factors affect t
drug clearance rate
disease or age
____ is independent of the concentration of drug in the plasma?
In ____ _____ kinetics, the rate of elimination is constant?
In _____ ______ kinetics, the clearance is inversely proportional to the drug concentration?
In ____ ______ kinetics, t
is directly proportional to drug concentration in plasma?
What are the phase 1 reactions?
What is a phase 2 reaction?
a conjugation with glucuronide or sulphate
it alters the activity and makes it less lipid soluble (more water soluble) so it can be excreted
What are some factors that affect biotransformation (metabolism)?
first pass effect
What are some drugs that have a low therapeutic index?
How can you increase dissolution rate of a drug?
reduce particle size
increase lipophillicity (add a surfactant)
add an ion exchange resin
porous microparticle technology(HDDS)
hydrophillic solubilization technology(HST)
controlled precipitation technology
Absolute bioavailability refers to what ROA?
Relative bioavailability relates to what ROA?
anything but IV
Which method can be done in vivo-- pharmacodynamic or pharmacokinetic?
Slope = m =
mx + b
2.3 x slope =
1 dL =
Dose/(beta x AUC) = Cl/beta
alpha x beta (A+B)/Abeta + Balpha =
Abeta + Balpha/A+B=
What are the units for AUC?
beta is ?
alpha is ?
y intercept of beta line
y intercept of alpha line
Dose/beta x AUC= Cl/beta
To calculate drug concentration at any time for a two-compartment model use: