Pharmacology Vocab

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  1. Additive Effects
    • Drug interactions in which the effect of a combination of two or more drugs with similar actions is equivalent to the sum of the individual effects of the same drugs given alone.
    • 1+1=2
  2. Adverse Drug Event
    Any undersirable occurrence related to administering or failing to administer a prescribed medication
  3. Adverse Drug Reaction
    Any unexpected, uninteded, undesired, or excessive reponse to a medication given at therapeutic dosages
  4. Adverse Effects
    A general term for any undesirable effects that are a direct response to one or more drugs
  5. Agonist
    A drug that binds to and stimulates the activity of one or more receptors in the body
  6. Allergic Reaction
    • An immunologic hypersensitivity reaction resulting from the unusual sensitivity of a patient to a particular medication
    • A type of adverse drug event
  7. Antagonist
    • A drug that binds to and inhibits the activity of one or more receptors in the body
    • Also called inhibitors
  8. Antagonistic Effects
    • Drug interactions in which the effect of a combination of two or more drugs is less than the sum of the individual effects of the same drugs given alone
    • 1+1<2
    • usually caused by an antagonizing (blocking or reducing) effect of one drug on another
  9. Bioavailability
    • A measure of the extent of drug absorption for a given drug and route
    • From 0% to 100%
  10. Duration of Action
    The length of time the concentration of a drug in the blood or tissues is sufficient to elicit a response
  11. Enzymes
    Protein molecules that catalyze one ore more of a variety of biochenical reaction, including those realted to the body's own physiologic processes as well as those related to drug metabolism
  12. First-Pass Effect
    The initial metabolism in the liver of a drug absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract before the drug reaches systemic circulation through the bloodstream
  13. Generic Name
    • AKA the nonproprietary name
    • Shorter and simpler thean the chenical name
    • Not protected by trademark
  14. Half-Life
    In pharmacokinetics, the time required for half of an administered dose of drug to be eliminated by the body, or the time it takes for the blood level of a drug to be reduced by 50%
  15. Idiosyncratic Reaction
    An abnormal and unexpected response to a medication, other than an allergic reaction, that is peculiar to an individual patient
  16. Incompatibility
    The characteristic that causes two parenteral drugs or solutions to undergo a reaction when mixed or given together that results in the chenical deterioration of at least one of the drugs
  17. Intraarticular
    Within a joint
  18. Intrathecal
    Within a sheath
  19. Medication Error
    • Any preventable adverse drug event involving inappropriate medication use by a patient or health care professional
    • It may or may not cause harm to the patient
  20. Medication Use Process
    The prescribing, despensing, and administering of medications, and the monitoring of their effects
  21. Metabolite(s)
    • A chemical form of a drug that is the product of one ore more biochemical (metabolic) reactions ivolving the parent drug
    • Active metabolites are those that have pharmacologic activity of their own, even if the parent drug is inactive
    • Inactive metabolites lack pharmacologic activity and are simply drug waste products awaiting excretion from the body
  22. Onset of Action
    The time required for a drug to elicit a therapeutic response after dosing
  23. Parent Drug
    • The chemical form of a drug that is administered before it is metabolized by the body's biochemical reaction into its active or inactive metabolites.
    • A parent drug that is not pharacologically active itself is called a prodrug.
    • A prodrug is then metabolized to pharmacolgically active metabolites.
  24. Peak Effect
    The time required for a drug to reach its maximum therapeutic response in the body
  25. Peak Level
    The maximum concentration of a drug in the body after administration, usually measured in a blood sample for therapeutic drug monitoring
  26. Pharmacodynamics
    • The study of the biochemical and physiologic interactions of drugs at their sites of activity
    • It examines the physicochemical properties of dugs and their pharmacolgiv interaction with body receptors
  27. Pharmacogenetics
    The study of the influence of genetic factors on drug response, including the nature of genetic aberations that result in the absence, overabundance, or insufficiency of drug-metabolizing enzymes
  28. Pharmacognosy
    The study of drugs that are obtained from atural plant and animal sources
  29. Pharmacokinetics
    • The rate of drug distribution among various body compartments after a drug has entered the body
    • Includes the phases of: Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion of drugs
  30. Pharmacology
    The broadest term for the study or science of drugs
  31. Pharmacotherapeutics
    The treatment of pathologic conditions through the use of drugs
  32. Prodrug
    An inactive drug dosage form that is converted to an active metabolite by various biochemical reactions once it is inside the body
  33. Receptor
    • A molecular structure within or on the outer surface of a cell
    • Receptors bind specific substances, and one or more corresponding cellular effects occurs as a result of this drug-receptor interaction
  34. Steady State
    The physiologic state in which the amount of drug removed via elimination is equal to the amount of drug absorbed with each dose
  35. Substrates
    Substances on which an enzymes acts
  36. Synergistic Effects
    • Drug interactions in which the effect of a combination of two or more drugs with similar actions is greater than the sum of the individual effects of the same drugs given alone.
    • 1+1>2
  37. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
    The process of measuring drug peak and trough levels to gauge the level of a patient's drug exposure and allow adjustment of dosages with the goals of maximizing therapeutic effects and minimizing toxicity
  38. Therapeutic Effect
    The desired or intended effect of a particular medication
  39. Therapeutic Index
    The ratio between the toxic and therapeutic concentrations of a drug
  40. Olerance
    Reduced response to a drug after prolonged use
  41. Toxic
    The quality of being poisonous
  42. Toxicity
    The condition of producing adverse bodily effects due to poisonous qualities
  43. Toxicology
    The study of poisons, including toxic drug effects, and poisonous qualities
  44. Trade Name
    • The commercial name given to a drug product by its manufacturer
    • AKA the propretary name
  45. Trough Level
    The lowest concentration of drug reached in the body after it falls from its peak level, usually measured in a blood sample for therapeutic drug monitoring
  46. Drug Absorption of Various Oral Preparations
    • From Fastest to Slowest
    • Liquids, Elixirs, and Syrups
    • Suspension Solutions
    • Powders
    • Capsules
    • Tablets
    • Coated Tablets
    • Enteric-Coated Tablets
  47. Dosage Forms
    • Enteral: Tablets, Capsules, Pills, Timed-Release Capsules, Timed-Release Tablets, Elixirs, Suspensions, Syrups, Emulsions, Solutions, Lozenges or Troches, Rectal Suppositories, Sublingual or Buccal Tablets
    • Parenteral: Injectable Forms, Solutions, Suspensions, Emulsions, Powders for Reconstitution
    • Topical: Aerosols, Ointments, Creams, Pastes, Powders, Solutions, Foams, Gels, Transdermal Patches, Inhalers, Rectal and Vaginal Suppositories
  48. Routes and Absorption: Oral
    • Barrier: Medications must pass through the layer of epithelial cells that line the GI tract.
    • Absorption: Varies greatly due to the following variables: 1) Stability and solubility of the medication 2) GI pH and emptying time 3) Presence of food in the stomach or intestines 4) Other medications currently being administered 5) Forms of medications
  49. Routes and Absorption: Subcutaneous and IM
    • Barrier: No significant barrier
    • Absorption: The rate of absorption is determined by
    • 1) Solubility of the med in water
    • -Highly soluble meds will be absorbed in 10-30 min
    • -Poorly soluble meds will be absorbed more slowly
    • 2) Blood perfusion at the site of injection
  50. Routes of Absorption: IV
    • Barriers: None
    • Absorption: Immediate and Complete
  51. Active Transport
    The active (energy-requiring) movement of a substance between different tissues via biomolecular pumping mechanisms contained within cell membranes.
  52. Diffusion
    The passsive movement of a substance between different tissues from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration
  53. Elderly
  54. Neonate
    <1 month
  55. Nomogram
    A graphic tool for estimating drug dosages using various body measurements
  56. Pediatric
  57. Polypharmacy
    The use of many different drugs concurrelty in treating a patient, who often has several health problems
  58. Black Box Warning
    • Appears in a drug's prescribing info
    • Required by the FDA
    • Alters prescribers of serious adverse events that have occured with the given drug
  59. Drug Polymorphism
    Variation in response to a drug becuase of a patient's age, gender, size, and/or body composition
  60. Investigational New Drug (IND)
    • Not approved for marketing by the FDA
    • Available for use in experiments to determine its safety and efficacy
  61. Orpahn Drugs
    Drugs that have been identified to help treat patients with rare diseases
  62. Components of a Med Order
    • Pt's Name
    • Date & Time of Order
    • Medication
    • Dosage
    • Route
    • Time & Frequency
    • Signature of MD
  63. Conversion Factors
    • 1mg = 1,000 mcg
    • 1g = 1,000 mg
    • 1kg = 1,000 g
    • 1oz = 30 ml
    • 1L = 1,000 ml
    • 1tsp = 5ml
    • 1tbsp = 15 ml
    • 1tbsp = 3 tsp
    • 1kg = 2.2 lbs
    • 1gr = 60 mg
  64. General Rounding Guidelines

    If o is greater then or equal to 5 round up by adding 1 to x

    If o is less than 5 round down by subtracting 1 from x

    For dosages less than 1.0 round to the nearest hundredth

    For dosages greater than 1.0 round to the nearest tenth
Card Set:
Pharmacology Vocab
2012-02-01 22:41:59
Pharmacology Vocabulary

Pharmacolgy Vocabulary
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