U.S. History 1st Semester Review

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U.S. History 1st Semester Review
2012-01-18 20:02:27
Review 1st Semester

US History review 1st semester.
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  1. Cause of Crusades. (+What religious groups were involved?)
    Crusades. The Crusades were a series of religious wars fought between the European Christians and the Saracen (Muslim) Turks. The two groups fought over the control of trade routes and the Holy Land.

    (Lesson: Revival of Trade and Commerce)
  2. Results of the Crusades. (+What effect did the crusades have on Western Europe?)
    • Demand for goods
    • 1 The Crusades led to an interest in travel and trade which, in turn, led to the growth of cities in Europe.
    • 2 contact with a new and more advanced culture
    • 3 Europeans were introduced to new luxuries--spices like pepper and cinnamon that made food taste better, sugar, soap, precious stones, healing drugs, and elegant dyes for cloth.
    • 4 They also admired and wanted the work of the artisans-- glass, fine china, perfumes, silk, swords, and beautiful rugs.

    (Lesson: Revival of Trade and Commerce)
  3. Renaissance Learning. (Understand Education changes and how the Printing Press {by ...} affected this period.)
    • Before: Reading and writing did not help most people, because they did little of either. Education centered primarily on the priests and leaders of the Church. Most books were written in Latin, which few people could read.
    • During: With the upsurge of interest in trade and travel, more people turned toward study. With the growing emphasis on learning, the students of the universities were discovering the literature and art of Greece and Rome. Students wrote in their native tongues instead of Latin. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to Europe.
    • ((Johann Gutenberg invented the movable type press. This allowed the journeys and explorations of adventurers to be written about, printed, and used by future travelers. Ideas and discoveries were spread quickly through the printed page, and the Renaissance soon became a powerful movement. The Bible was the first book to be printed on the Gutenberg press.))
    • Influences of Renaissance:
    • 1 Book: Travels of Marco Polo
    • 2 Printing Press
    • 3 Growing interest in learning
    • (Lesson: New Ideas and Religious Changes)
  4. Jamestown [1607] 1 (1619)Struggles and success
    2 (how did the)Early Leaders(affect its development)
    • 1 The swampy land was a breeding ground for
    • malaria-carrying mosquitoes, and the lowland water
    • supply was easily contaminated.
    • 2 The first summer most of the settlers were exploring for the fabled Northwest Passage that led to the East. They searched for gold and silver instead of building homes and planting food crops. Within six months, half of the population had died. Native Americans had killed some, and some died from malaria or from diseases caused by drinkingcontaminated water.
    • 1 John Smith- He ordered all the settlers to return from exploration and began building a fort, storehouse, and palisade. He also ordered the planting of the corn crop. He made a trip to the Native American chief Powhatan's
    • village where he was able to bargain for a supply of corn to carry the colony through the winter. Under Smith's guidance the colony was peaceful and crops flourished.

    • first crisis: colonists discovered that rats had destroyed half of their grain supply.
    • Smith: put a survival plan
    • into action. Some of the colonists were sent to
    • fish, some were sent to gather oysters, and some were sent to live with the Native Americans. The plan worked and the settlement survived.
    • second crisis: new immigrants were arriving without sufficient supplies. Starvation loomed as a real possibility. The slender resources of the colony were already stretched to the limit.
    • third crisis: Smith was wounded on a mission to the Native American tribes and returned with a discouraging report: no gold or silver, and no Northwest Passage.
    • Smith's enemies in Jamestown promptly put him on the first ship for England so he could receive "proper medical treatment."
    • He wrote the Rude Reply

    • 2Lord Delaware-
    • immigrants arrived, again without sufficient
    • food. The already low food supply dwindled even more. Without
    • Smith's firm hand, discipline broke down. Relations with the Native Americans became strained--thirty settlers were massacred while bartering for food. Disease struck time after time, and snakes and roots became the main diet of the surviving settlers.
    • By the summer of 1610 only sixty-five settlers were still alive. Over four hundred had died of starvation.

    In May of that year, relief seemed to arrive in the form of two small ships sailing up the river, but relief turned to dismay when they learned that the ships carried survivors of the earlier shipwreck on Bermuda. The remaining settlers prepared to give up and return to England. When they had gone only a short distance, they met a small boat announcing the arrival of three well-supplied ships. Lord Delaware arrived and quickly put the new charter into effect. He was efficient and disciplined, and order was restored. New communities were established and the horrors of starvation were banished.

    • 3 John Rolfe- True prosperity came to Virginia when Rolfe began experimenting with tobacco seed which had come from Bermuda.
    • A market developed in England for tobacco from Virginia. King James I tried to break the English of the habit of smoking. He wrote a pamphlet in which he described tobacco smoking as "hateful to the nose, harmful to the brain, dangerous to the lungs." He could not, however, curb the Englishman's liking for Virginia tobacco.
    • At last Virginia had a money crop and the London Company was making money on its venture in the NewWorld.

    (Lesson: Colonization Begins in the New World)
  5. English Colonization (Understand England's mecantile policy and identify ways in which the policy benefited and harmed the colonies.)
    • The London Company and
    • Plymouth Company were formed and granted charters in 1606 for the founding of two colonies in
    • Virginia. The directors hoped these colonies would:
    • (1) be the hub of exploration for a Northwest Passage to China,
    • (2) provide a new source for gold and silver, and
    • (3) find new areas for plantations where the materials England needed could be
    • produced. The settlers for the charter were given twenty years to get the colony on solid
    • footing. Workers with special skills were important, but
    • farmers were needed so that the colony would become
    • self-sufficient. Local government was ruled by a council.
    • Every settler was to be guaranteed all the rights of English
    • citizens, and the taxes collected were to benefit the
    • colony.

    • How it Benefited the colonies:
    • 1) Encouraged Colonies to Build Ships and a Merchant Marine
    • 2) Forced Merchants to Seek New Markets
    • 3) Forced Colonies to Develop Natural Resources through a protected market

    • How it Harmed the Colonies:
    • 1) Caused Increase in Shipping
    • 2) Forced Colonies to Engage in Smuggling
    • 3) Prevented Colonial Industry from Growing

    (Lesson: Colonization Begins in the New World)
  6. The Protestant Reformation (Identify the religious stances of England's leaders. Compare Contrast to the Protestant, Puritan, and Separatists.
    • King Henry VIII was strongly opposed to the Protestant religion founded by Martin Luther, yet ironically turned the Church of England toward the religion.
    • When his son Edward, became king, the church took another turn toward the Protestant religion.
    • When Mary became queen many Protestants fled England because she was a devout Catholic.
    • Elizabeth I was a protestant like her brother and brought it back to the Church of England.

    Puritans wanted to take away what the church's own teachings were, and teach strictly from the Bible.

    Neither King James I nor his son, King Charles I, was able to cope with Parliamentary criticism. Charles had gone so far as to rule the nation without Parliament. As a result, many English freedoms were severely restricted and religious persecution increased. Many Puritans were jailed without due process of a court trial. As the economic, political, and religious conditions in England grew worse, the Puritans began looking for a religious refuge of their own. Their eyes turned toward the flourishing colony of their Calvinist cousins, the Pilgrims.

    Separatists (later called Pilgrims), believed that the Church of England was too tainted with Catholic teachings and thought they should separate from it entirely. (Elizabeth I thought of this as dangerous and rebellious so she had the meetings broken up and many of the leaders hung.)

    (Lesson: Puritan Background and the Plymouth Settlement & Puritan Migration and the Settlement of New England)
  7. The Thirteen Colonies Culture (Understand the reasons for founding each colony. Identify their characteristics: economic, government, and religious. Remember notable events.
    Massachusetts Bay Colony: The wanted to be separated from the Church of England. They gave congregational independence to the churches and did not other with separating affairs of the state and church.

    Magistrates or judges administered the laws of thePuritans colony and rules of the church. They saw no important difference between civil and religious crimes. Sometimes they even consulted the Bible to find an appropriate punishment.

    • During its early years, Massachusetts was greatly influenced by Puritan ministers. Disagreement with the
    • Puritan leaders on religious matters was not tolerated, and
    • many dissenters were banished from the colony. The Massachusetts town reinforced the alliance of government and church. This type of settlement
    • had several advantages. The Massachusetts community was compact and easily defended. The town's growth also strengthened the church, for village and congregation were one, and all were under the watchful eye of the minister. So valuable was this system that the town became the basic unit of settlement for all New England.
    • The effort to root out Separatists led to the founding of Rhode Island.

    • Rhode Island -
    • Roger Williams, torchbearer of religious freedom, arrived in New England in 1631 to become the pastor of the church at Salem. Williams felt strongly that the Native Americans should be paid for the lands that were taken from them by the colonists. In addition he spoke of the need to keep his church free from evil influence--especially in its contact with the government. Called before a court in Boston, Williams boldly told the authorities that they had absolutely no power over his congregation. The court banished him from the colony.
    • Williams spent the winter with Native Americans and purchased from them a tract of land at the head of Narragansett Bay. There in the spring of 1636, Williams and a few of his followers
    • founded Providence Plantations. Providence Plantations became Rhode Island.
    • In 1644 Williams obtained a charter for his
    • colony from the king. It provided for an elected governor and an assembly; but religion was left to Williams, who promptly decreed religious freedom for his colony. No laws would be made on religion, and no government would interfere with the churches. The climate of freedom attracted new immigrants to Rhode Island, among them Jews, Quakers, and Separatists. All of these groups had been discriminated against in England.

    Connecticut --

    • Thomas Hooker, a Puritan
    • minister at Newtown, and the members of his congregation decided to seek a freer system of government and more fertile land.
    • In the summer of 1636, they sold
    • their homes in Massachusetts and set out on foot for the Connecticut River
    • valley. They settled at Hartford; and before long other
    • settlers founded Wethersfield and Windsor nearby. Soon the
    • three communities formed the self-governing colony of
    • Connecticut. The elected delegates drew up the Fundamental
    • Orders of Connecticut, which was the first written
    • constitution in America. Closely modeled after the Bay
    • Colony, the government was different in that it did not
    • require church membership for the right to vote.

    New Hampshire--

    • Colonists also moved into the region north of Massachusetts. Earlier settlements
    • had been established by Sir Ferdinando Gorges in Maine and
    • Captain John Mason in New Hampshire, but they were little
    • more than trading posts. The pioneers who pushed into these
    • areas did not recognize the authority of Gorges and Mason.
    • They were backed by the General Court of Massachusetts. Taking advantage of the civil war in England, Massachusetts claimed both of these areas as part of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. After years of bickering, New Hampshire broke away and secured its own royal charter from Charles II in 1679. Maine remained a part of Massachusetts until 1820.

    • New York--
    • Although New York became
    • an English proprietary colony in 1664,
    • it began as a Dutch trading post. In 1621 the Dutch West India Company was
    • chartered to colonize this region and to develop trade. The company's agents established a fur-trading post at Fort Orange (Albany) and staked out the settlement of New Amsterdam on Manhattan Island. Dutch merchants purchased Manhattan Island from local Native Americans for about twenty-four dollars worth of trinkets.
    • Despite the weakness of
    • the colony, New Netherland irritated the English because it
    • was a center of illegal trade. By shipping through New
    • Netherland, American colonists could avoid English
    • regulations and taxes. King Charles's solution was to offer
    • the Dutch colony as a proprietorship to his brother James,
    • Duke of York. All James had to do was conquer it. The king provided him with a fleet, and James sailed into the harbor of New Amsterdam. Even though the governor, Peter Stuyvesant, said he would never surrender to the English, the residents apparently saw little difference between Dutch rule and English rule--they would not back the governor. James took the colony without firing a shot and renamed it New York after himself.

    • Thus, in 1664 the monopoly of inland fur trade and
    • the splendid harbor of New Amsterdam became English. James assured the Dutch that they could
    • keep their lands. This was an important gesture because some of the wealthiest citizens had princely estates in the Hudson River valley. In time, James became as
    • unpopular as the Dutch governor had been. Eventually New York would become a royal colony.

    • New Jersey--
    • In the 1600s the Quakers sought a refuge
    • from persecution in England.
    • The government of Charles II was
    • fairly relaxed on religious matters. It would have tolerated
    • the Quakers--just as it had the Roman Catholics--had the
    • Quakers been a little less zealous. Because of their
    • religious beliefs, the Quakers were looked upon by the
    • government as a disloyal and rebellious group. The Quakers
    • believed that they should follow their consciences. They not only refused to follow the Church of
    • England, but in many ways they disobeyed the government. For example, they believed that war was wrong and refused to take part in it. Many of
    • them were thrown into prison for their beliefs.

    • Quakers were excluded from
    • the government, the military services, and the universities.
    • Little remained for Quakers to do but to enter a trade. As
    • they prospered, they grew more aware of the governmental restrictions upon them. Soon the Quakers were looking for a refuge of their own in America.

    • New Jersey had originally
    • been part of the Dutch claim known as New Netherland. The new
    • proprietor of the colony, James, the Duke of York, sold the
    • land between the Hudson and Delaware rivers to two of his
    • friends, Lord John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret in 1664. In 1674,
    • Berkeley sold his share of New Jersey to a group of Quakers headed by Edward Byllynge. The colony was divided into East Jersey and West Jersey, with West Jersey becoming the first Quaker colony in America. Carteret owned East Jersey until he died in 1680. In 1682 East Jersey was bought by another group of Quakers.
    • Puritans, Baptists, and
    • Scots-Irish also emigrated to the colony in the late 1600s.
    • Disputes eventually arose over
    • land ownership, and the colonists objected to paying rents to
    • landowners. A series of riots occurred in the 1690s, and the owners eventually gave up
    • East and West Jersey in 1702. They were
    • reunited as a single colony under the control of the king of
    • England.
    • Pennsylvannia --
    • Pennsylvania was formed for a religious
    • motive--to be a refuge for the Society of Friends, or
    • Quakers. Pennsylvania was founded by William Penn and was the
    • most successful of the proprietary colonies.
    • Penn had infuriated his
    • father, a wealthy admiral, by joining the Society of Friends.
    • Penn had spent time in prison for writing religious
    • pamphlets. When his father died, Penn inherited a claim of
    • 16,000 pounds against King Charles II for a debt that the
    • king owed to Penn's father. Penn persuaded the king to pay
    • the debt by granting him land in the New World where he could
    • establish a haven for Quakers. In 1661 Charles gave Penn title to the land between New York and Maryland. The land would be called "Pennsylvania," meaning "Penn's Woods."
    • William Penn arrived in Pennsylvania with a group of settlers
    • in 1682. The capital city was laid out
    • according to Penn's plans and was named Philadelphia, which
    • means "City of Brotherly Love." Penn believed in religious
    • freedom and welcomed people of all faiths to his colony. This
    • climate of freedom attracted many immigrants. Large numbers
    • of Quakers and Englishmen of all religions flocked to
    • Pennsylvania. People from other lands also settled in the
    • colony. Among them were Germans who
    • had been treated harshly in their own country. These Germans
    • became known as the Pennsylvania Dutch (from Deutsch,
    • which means "German"). The Scots-Irish came because of
    • economic reasons. Pennsylvania grew rapidly with these waves
    • of immigrants, and before long Philadelphia had become the
    • largest and busiest city in the colonies. It became the
    • gateway to the American West.

    • The
    • charter gave Penn total authority over the colony, but Penn
    • believed in giving the people a voice. His government
    • established an elected council to furnish advice to the
    • governor and an assembly to pass laws. He also promised
    • complete religious freedom. In all, Penn had the freest and
    • most democratic political system in the world at that
    • time.
    • Penn also insisted that Native Americans be treated fairly.
    • Penn was a wise and kind
    • proprietor who treated his colonists fairly and expected
    • honest work from them. The colonists found that land in
    • Pennsylvania was cheap and easy to get. They had little fear
    • of Native American attacks because Penn made friends with the neighboring tribes and treated them honestly. For these reasons Pennsylvania grew rapidly and became a successful colony. By the late 1700s it was one
    • of the leading English colonies.

    • Deleware--
    • Delaware became a
    • separate colony many years after it was first settled. This
    • land was first controlled by the Swedes in 1638, and then by the Dutch, who divided the
    • region into three district courts. These three divisions
    • still exist today as the counties of New Castle, Kent, and
    • Sussex. Finally, in 1664, the land came
    • into the hands of the English.Unfortunately, William
    • Penn's first grant of land did not include any coastline, and
    • he wanted an outlet to the sea, mainly for trade. In 1682, Penn was able to obtain from the Duke of York the land now known as Delaware. As
    • proprietor of Pennsylvania and Delaware, Penn even helped
    • draw up a constitution named the "Great Law of Pennsylvania"
    • which established the right of colonists to elect their own
    • representatives and judges. He also allowed settlers in the
    • Delaware region to have an assembly of their own to share in
    • making laws. In 1704 Delaware was finally
    • made a separate colony.

    • Maryland--
    • First Proprietary Colony. The
    • charter was granted to George Calvert, the first Lord
    • Baltimore. A devout Catholic, he had asked Charles I for a grant of land in America where he could establish a refuge for people of the Catholic faith. In 1632 the king named Lord Baltimore the proprietor of the territory that extended from the south bank of the Potomac River north to the fortieth parallel. Lord Baltimore died that same year, but his son, the second Lord Baltimore, inherited the land grant and carried out the wishes of his father.
    • The colony was called
    • Mary's Land after the king's Catholic wife. In the spring of 1634, about two hundred settlers,
    • including many Catholics, landed at St. Mary's near the mouth
    • of the Potomac River. Many Protestants came to the colony as well. Virginians looking for new lands to replace the tobacco-depleted lands of Virginia moved north into Maryland also.
    • At first, Lord Baltimore
    • attempted to set up a feudal system with large manorial
    • landowners. The landowners were to have the right to set up a
    • system of laws that would govern their landholdings.
    • Relatives and close friends of the Calverts were to receive
    • 6,000 acres. Other wealthy people could purchase land grants
    • in the amount of 3,000 acres. Smaller land grants would be
    • offered in 1,000-acre lots; however, this system did not work as the Calverts had hoped. To entice people to settle, they instituted the same headright system used in Virginia--they offered one hundred acres of land to any settler who transported himself to the colony.
    • The most important law was the Toleration Act passed in 1649.
    • It granted religious freedom to all those who
    • professed belief in Jesus Christ. The Toleration Act
    • protected Catholics, Anglicans, and most of the Protestant
    • dissenters. However, it was not as broad a guarantee of religious freedom as Roger Williams had secured in Rhode Island. Shortly after Charles II became king, a group of
    • eight men requested permission to found a colony in the area between Virginia and Spanish Florida.
    • Their grant ran from Virginia to Florida and west to the Pacific.
    • Virginians settled in the northern part of the
    • Carolinas. Eventually the town of Charles Towne (later
    • Charleston) was founded in the southern part of the
    • Carolinas.
    • --From the beginning in 1663,
    • clear differences were seen between the southern and northern
    • portions of Carolina. In the south were large plantations
    • that grew rice and indigo. The plantations were worked by indentured servants and African slaves. The landowners lived like noblemen and their social life centered on the bustling port of Charleston.
    • --The northern part of Carolina was settled
    • by Virginia frontier settlers, Quakers, and German farmers. They raised some tobacco but mostly corn and livestock on their small farms. They generally worked the land themselves.
    • In 1729 North and South Carolina
    • became separate royal colonies under the direct control of
    • the king.
    • Georgia--
    • Georgia was the last of the English colonies to
    • be founded. By the mid-1700s the
    • population of the colonies had swelled to more than a
    • million. One more new colony would help contribute to the growth.
    • In 1732 James Oglethorpe and several of his friends received a charter from King George II to organize a colony south of the Carolinas. It would be called Georgia. Oglethorpe and his associates planned to control the colony for twenty-one years, at which point it would automatically become a royal colony.
    • Two main reasons for founding a colony in Georgia
    • was to have a "buffer zone" south of the Carolinas to keep
    • the Spanish from moving further north, and to serve as a
    • haven for cruelly treated English prisoners. Oglethorpe was
    • interested in the unfortunate people who were sent to English prisons simply because they could not pay their debts or because they had committed some trifling crime. Oglethorpe hoped to give these prisoners a new start in life.
    • In 1732 when Oglethorpe and
    • a group of people secured the title to the land between
    • South Carolina and Spanish Florida, they decided to ban
    • slavery in their colony, to prohibit the importation of rum
    • and brandy, and to limit individual landholdings to fifty
    • acres. The proprietors hoped that the settlers would produce silk and wine, supplying goods which the mother country needed. They also hoped that forts along Georgia's southern border would offer protection against Spanish and Native American raids.
    • From Oglethorpe's point of view, Georgia was a
    • failure. He advertised far and wide among the English poor, but few came to the colony. Instead, Georgia—like
    • most of the other southern colonies—was settled by
    • land-hungry men and women, people who quickly tired of
    • Oglethorpe's well-meaning supervision.
    • The colony staggered along for twenty years. In 1752 Oglethorpe asked the king to take
    • over. Under royal control the colony changed rapidly. Slaves were imported and cotton and rice plantations were established. Georgia became like the other southern
    • plantation colonies.

    (Lesson: The Middle Colonies; The Southern Colonies; & Puritan Migration and the Settlement of New England)
  8. Reasons for founding the New England Colonies
  9. Reasons for Founding Middle colonies.
  10. Reasons for founding the Southern Colonies.
  11. Thirteen Colonies Founders (Know the founders {individuals or groups} of the original thirteen colonies.)
    • Massachusetts: Puritans
    • Rhode Island: Roger Williams
    • Connecticut: Thomas Hooker
    • New Hampshire: People from Massachustts moving toward Maine.
    • New York: started as a Dutch trading post and became an English Proprietory Colony (later it became a royal colony)
    • New Jersey: Oringinally part of New Netherlands (New York) when James took
    • over possesion he sold this portion to his friends Lord Berkeley and Sir
    • Cataret. Lord Berkeley sold his land to Quakers hoping to escape the
    • discrimination in England. Puritans, Baptists, and Scots-Irish.
    • Pennsylvania: Founded by William PennDeleware:
    • was made its own colony in 1704. Started with the Swedes, fell into the
    • hands of the Dutch, and finally became an English colony. William Penn
    • was eventually able to get the land from the Duke of York.
    • Maryland: The grant for the first proprietory colony was given to George Calvert.
    • Georgia: James Oglethorpe

    (Lesson: The Middle Colonies; The Southern Colonies; & Puritan Migration and the Settlement of New England)
  12. Locate all Thirteen Colonies on a Map.
  13. Population Growth in the Colonies. (Identify the main reasons for population growth in the colonies. Describe the immigration trends [who came to America and why?].)
    Early immigration was from England. Later immigration was from other European countries and Africa. By 1776 more than a third of the American population was of non-English origin.

    • German immigrants came to America for several
    • reasons: warfare among the many German states, the religious persecution of the Protestant peasants, and the heavy taxation and seizure of property by the warring factions.
    • The Scots-Irish: came to America
    • after Parliament forbade them to ship their dairy products,
    • linens, and woolens to English markets. Faced with economic ruin, they decided to emigrate to the New World. Finding much of the coastline already settled, they chose the unsettled frontiers of the Middle Colonies.
    • Huguenots (French Protestants) were persecuted because of their faith in
    • God. The Huguenots were forbidden to settle in New France;
    • therefore, many of them fled to Protestant countries in
    • Europe. A number also came to America. Many of them were trained craftspeople in a profession. They quickly established themselves in colonial cities. The Reveres and Faneuils of Boston were of Huguenot background.

    In addition to these groups, many involuntary immigrants helped to swell the population: the poor, the criminals, the widows, and the orphans from England. Other European countries also chosethis method to alleviate some of their social problems, and the colonies could do little about it. The largest group of unwilling immigrants was African slaves.

    (Lesson: Growth of the Colonies)
  14. Locate the 13 Colonies.