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By 1900, how many miles of track were there in the US?
What was the impact of the railroad touching a town or bypassing it?
If it was touched it became a flourising city. If bypassed, it dried up and became a "ghost town".
What was the name of the five railroads that connected the west?
- The Central Pacific
- the Union Pacific
- The Northern Pacific
- the Great Northern Railway
- The Southern Pacific and the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe
The chief financial backers of the Central Pacific Railway -
- Leland Stanford
- Collis P. Hungtington
- Mark Hopkins
- Charles Crocker
Who were the actual workers of the Central Pacific and Union Pacific?
The Central Pacific was built by Chinese laborers and the Union Pacific was built by Union army veterans, mostly Irish immigrants
Who was the "king" of eastern railroads and what did he do to become king?
The king was Cornelius Vanderbilt (Vanderbilt University) who made his money originally in transportation by steamship. He consolidated shorter rail line creating longer, more efficient lines
What 4 improvements were made in rail travel?
- a. rails were changed from iron to steel (withstood changes in weather better)
- b. gauge was standarized (the width between the rails)
- c. the invention of the Westinghouse brake (1870s) - before trains had no brakes
- d. Pullman Palace Cars - comfortable, traveling, and sleeping cars
What positives resulted from linking the nation together with rails?
- a. the creation of a domestic market for American raw materials and manufactured goods
- b. foreign investors were drawn to the US
- c. the railroad network encourages the industrialization of 1870s to 1900
- d. stimulated mining and agriculture, especially in the west, farmers could live anywhere
- e. railroads ecourage the creation of cities
- f. railroads encouraged immigration
- g. land changed as rails and people moved west
- h. encouraged uniform time zones
- i. created millionaires - lords of the rails
What negatives resulted from linking the nation together with rails?
- a. corruption in railroad building and running - stock watering - selling more stock than was available
- b. the Vanderbilts - "I won't sue you, I'll ruin you"
- c. bribery of Congressmen and judges for tax laws and easy rulings - free passes and rebates
- d. unfair prices for farmers, shippers, and riders
What government actions helped stop these negative practices?
- a. the Wabash case - 1886, Supreme Court ruling that placed interstate commerce out of the hands of states and under the control of the federal government
- b. Interstate Commerce ACt - 1887, prohibited rebates and pools, required railraos to publish their rates openly, forbade unfair discrimination against shippers and outlawed charging more for a short haul over the same line, set up the Interstate Commerce Commission to administer and enforce its rulings - today?
What were the ingredients of the second industrial revolution?
Liquid capital (money to invest), natural resources, immigrants for labor, American ingenuity (1860 - 1890 - 440,000 patents issued)
Who were the two of the period's most inventive men?
Alexander Graham Bell - telephone, impacted business and society - "number please" women
Thomas Alva Edison - invention laboratory at Menlo Park, NJ, light bulb, phonograoh, mimeograph, motion picture camera, Dictaphone