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  1. Urine Sample Types
    • - Normal voided urine
    • - cystocentesis
    • - catheterization
  2. normal urine output
    1-2 ml/kg/hr
  3. Stages of urinalysis
    • -Physical examination
    • -chemical examination
    • -microscopic examination
  4. Physical examination
    • -Volume (most important)
    • -Polyuria
    • -oliguria
    • -anuria
    • -odor
    • -color
    • -transparency (tubidity)
    • -Specific gravity
  5. Polyuria
    • -caused by increased fluid intake (dilutes urine, pale color, lower specific gravity)
    • -urine often pale w/ decreased specific gravity
    • -occurs in nephritis, diabetes mellitis, diabetes insipidus, pyometra in dogs and cats, liver dz
    • -drugs causing polyuria- diuretics, corticosteriods.
  6. oliguria
    • -decreased urine output
    • - seen in acute nephritis, fever, shock, decreased fluid intake, increased environment temperature, heart dz, and dehydration
  7. Anuria
    • -lack of urine
    • -complete urethral obstruction and urinary bladder rupture
    • -no urine production in 12 hr in normal state of hydration
  8. odor
    • -normal strong odor in male cats, goats and pigs
    • -not diagnostic but can detect (bacteria, ammonia, ketones (sweet))
  9. color
    • - normal color rangers from colorless to amber
    • -yellow color of urine due to urochromes
    • - concentration of urine can be estimated from color
  10. colorless to light yellow urine
    low specific gravity
  11. dark yellow to yellow brown
    high specific gravity, associate w/ oliguria
  12. yellow brown to green urine and produces foam
    contains bile pigments (hematuria)
  13. red to reddish brown urine
    increased RBC or hemoglobin (hemoglobinuria)
  14. Greenish brown urine
  15. brown urien
    myoglobin (myoglobinuria) indicates muscle cell lysis (excertional rhabdomyolysis in horses) excess activity myglobin released.
  16. Drugs affecting urine
    Phenothiazine anthelmintics = turns it pink to red
  17. Turbidity
    • -defines the amt of particulate matter in sample (ability to see through the urine if place in test tubes)
    • -ranges from clear, slightly cloudy, cloudy, turbid
  18. Specific Gravity
    • -baced on number particulate size, weight and number in solution compared to water (solute concentration)
    • -most important physical property-indicates ability to concentrate (dilute urine= kidneys not working effeciently, may meen diabetes
  19. isosthenuria- specific gravity
    • -glomerulur filtrate specific gravity (1.008-1.012)
    • -seen in chronic renal dz
    • - animals deprived of H2O exhibit this
  20. Chemical analysis
    • -very important
    • -test strips or tablets used
    • -limitations: wbc, specific graity, urobilinogin
    • -pH
    • -protein
    • -glucose
  21. Chemical analysis: pH
    • -concentration of H+ ions in solution
    • -increased pH= alkaline
    • -decreased pH= acidic
    • -neutral pH= 7.0
Card Set:
2012-01-19 20:26:24
clin path

clin path 1 test 1
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