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1) Covers all external body surfaces 2) covers all internal body surfaces 3) are major glandular tissues 4) anchors 5) generally lacks vascularization (blood supply) 6) diffusion, through connective tissues which are highly vascularized nourishes overlying epithelial cells 7) reproduce rapidly 8) are tightly pakced with little intercellular material between them 9) also function in a) secretion b)absorption c) excretion and d) sensory 10) free surfaces are modified for special functions
10 characteristics of Epthelial tissue
Simple Squamous Epithlium
Tissue with flattened or scale-like cells, "squam" means scale, single layer of thin, flattened cells that fir together tightly, their nuclei are usually broad and thin diffusion (osmosis) and fitration readily occur through this tissue (eg air sacs fo lungs - oxygen and carbon dioxide exchanged here, walls of cappilaries, lining of blood vessels, and membranes that line body cavity) due to thinness, damage occurs easily.
Simple Squamous Epithilium
single layer of cube-shaped cells; nucleus large and centrally located; forms lingin of many glands and their ducts; found on surface of ovaries, inner surface of eye lens, piganeted epi. of eye retina, some kidney tubules with microvilli on cell surface; functions in secretion of mucus, sweat, enzymes and absorption of fluids.
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
Simple Columnar Epithelium
single layer of cells that are taller than they are wide; looks like simple cuboidal epi with elongated cells. Have large, oval-shaped nucleus, usually located at the base of the cells. may secrete mucus ( from goblet cells- the only unicellular glands in the human body maby have cilia or microvilli on free surface of cells, found in stomach lining, intestinal lining) digestive glands, gallbladder, fallopian tubes; functions in secretion, absorption, protection and lubrication; mucus and cilia combine to trap and sweep away foreign substances; cilia may also help to move objects through a duct.
Simple Columnar Epithelium
Stratisfied Squamous Epithelium Non keritanized
several layers of cells; only superficial layer composed of flat squamous cells, underlying basal cells are modified cuboidal or columnar cells that are pushed upward from near basement membrane to replace dying superficial cells. shedding process in outer layer os called desquamation
-occurs in areas where friction or possibilty of cellular injury or drying occurs (ie epidermis, vagina, mouth, esophagus anal canal, distal end of urethra.
major function is protection, in skin replacement cells rising to the surface from underlying layers produce keratin
their nuclei and organelles disappear and bt the time they reach the surface, they consist mostly of keratin; these keratinized cells flake off as the next batch fo cells reaches the surface.
cells in a moist environment are non-kerantinized they retain their nuclei and organelles.
Stratisfied Squamous Epithelium
Pseudostratisfied Columnar Epithium
single layer of cells of varying height and shape
nuclei are different levels give false impression of multilayered structure
all cells in contact with basement membrane, but not all reach superficial layer
when ciliated, called pseudostratisfied ciliated columnar epithelium
mainly located in larege excretory ducts, most of male reproductive tract, nasal cavity and other respiratory passages, and part of ear cavity
major functions are protection, secretion, and movement of substances across surfaces; mucusfrom cells in respiratory tract traps foreign substances; mucus moved to throat by sweeping action of cilia and either coughed out or swallowed and later eliminated in feces.
Pseudostratisfied Columnar Epithelium
what is Carcinoma?
- cancer orginating in epithelium
- 90% of all human cnacers are of this type, suggesting that the more common cancers are not found to originate in deep tissues.
They connect or bind other tissues together
have a great deal of extracellular, fibrous material that helps to support the cells of other tissues. "supporting tissues"
also function to form protective sheaths around hollow organs and function in storage (fill spaces), transport and repair. (protection against infections)
Connective tissue and their function
What is Fibroblasts?
- Most common type of connective tissue found in human skeleton.
- they secrete matrix between cells
- (collagen- most abundant vertebrate protein)
flexible tissue with great strength, formed of collagen matrix and found at the end of bones that form joints
Collagen coated with calcium phosphate ( more rigid than collagen alone)
3 types of Muscle Tissue?
uninucleate, nonstriated, medial nuclei, found surrounding blood vessels and gastrointestinal tract (GI)
multinucleate, striated, peripheral nuclei, these are the muscles associated with bones
Skeletal Muscle Tissue
uninucleate, striated, possess intercalated disks, found only in the heart.
Cardiac Muscle Tissue
composed of neurons (nerve cells) and supporting cells
function to transmit electrical impulses to, from and within brain and spinal chord
basic parts fo nerve cells are
2) cell body or soma
Semi Permeable, phospholid bilayer surrounding the cell, defines the boundaries, governs its interactions with other cells, and controls the passage of material into and out of cell. 90-99 % of molecules are lipids (75% are phospholipids)
containing heads facing the water on each side of the membrane and their hydrophobic tails directed toward the center of the membrane (avoids water)
1. all organisms are composed of cells and cell product
2. the cell is the simpleststructural and functional unit of life.
3. an organisms structure and all of its functions are ultimately due to the activites of the cells.
4. cells come only from preexsting cells.
5. because of common ancestry, cells of all species have many fundamental similarities in their chemical compostion and metabolic mechanisms.
cell theory (scheliden and schwann)
cell size is expressed in what measurement?
Micrometers (um) human cell is 10-15 um
structures inside a cell are measured in what?
fluid between the nucleus and plasma membrane:
crowded with fibers, passage ways, and compartments, all embedded in a clear gel. (cytosol or intracellular fluid)
internal structures of a cell that carry out specialized metabolic tasks. eg nucleus, mitochondria, etc.
stored cellular products (glycogen granules, pigments, and fat droplets)
2 foreign body (dust particles, viruses, and intracellular bactria)
Largest organelle and usually only one visible with light microscope. Houses DNA
"little network within the cytoplasm"
Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)
synthesizes steriods and other lipids, detoxifies alcohol and other drugs, and manufactures all of the membranes of the cell. ( found in liver and kidney)
smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER)
small granules of protien and RNA found in the cytosol and on the outer surfaces of the RER and nuclear envelope.
they read gentic meassages from the nucleus and assemble amino acids into proteins.
Small systme of cisternae that synthesizes CHO and put the finishing touches on protein and glycoprotein synthesis.
Package of enzymes that break down proteins, nucleic acids, complex CHO, phospholipids and other substrates.
found in liver- breaks down stored glycogen to release glucose into the bloodstream.
Resemblesl lysosomes but contain different enzymes produced by the gogli complex?
abundant in the kidney and liver cells where they neutralize free radicals and detox alcohol and drugs?
Organelles specialized for synthesizing ATP?
powerhouses of the cells b/c energy is extracted from organic compounds and transferred to ATP by enzymes located on the cristae?
Short cyndrical assembly of microtubules- play a role in cell divsion?
Colletion of protien filaments and cylinders that determine the shape of a cell, gives it structural support, organizes its contents, moves substances through the cell, and contributes to whole cellular movement?
Hair like processes that are motile and move mucus through the respiratory tract and egg cells through the uterine tubes?
Long whip like structures for movement found on sperm cell?
list 11 Organelles in the cell
- Endoplasmic Reticiculum (RER and SER)
- Golgi Apparatus
What is Mitosis?
Process where one cell divides into 2 daughter cells with identical DNA
material within the nucleus
This is in the nucleus and the subunits of the cytoplasmic ribosomes are produced here and transported to the cytoplasm
fine thread like matter dispersed throughout the nucleoplasm (DNA and associated proteins)
Why Mitosis occurs? 4 reasons
- A) formation of a multicellular embryo from fertilized egg
- B) tissue growth
- C) replace old or dead cells
- D0 repair injured tissue
4 phases of mitosis:
chromatin become super coiled into short chromosomes called chromatids joined @ centromere
centrioles sprout elongated microtubules which push apart centrioles.
chromosomes line up at midline randomly
Mitotic spondle is formed
star shaped array of lmicrotubules which anchor the centrioles to the P.M.
star shaped array of lmicrotubules which anchor the centrioles to the P.M.
Each centromere divides in 2.
1 chromatid migrates to each pole of the cell with centromere leading the way and arms trailing
Chromatids cluster on each side of the cell
RER produces nuclear envelope
chromatids uncoil and return to thin dispersed chromatin
Mitotic spindle vanishes
"cleavage furrow:" is created
Division of cytoplasm occurs in the telophase of mitosis?
list 4 tissue types:
surface that faces basement membrane?
surface that faces away from basement membrane?
Absorption/secretion , production of protective mucous coat and movement of respiratory mucus is the functions of what Epithelia tissue?
located in the liver, thyroid , mammary glands , slaivary glands and other glands. Mostly in kidney tubules and bronchioles.
name that epithelia?
located in the inner lining of the stomach, intestines, gall bladder, uterus and uterine tubes. It absorbs and secretes mucus.
Name that Epithelia?
What is a mucus secreting gland found in the columnar epithelium called?
Located in the respiratory tract from nasal cavity-bronchi and portions of male reproductive tract. It secretes and propels mucus. (cilia present)
What epithelia am I?
What deteremines if a epithelia is simple or stratified?
by the number of cell layers
What is Keratin?
protein that repells water
I'm located in the tongue, oral mucosal, esophagus and vagina. I lack a layer of dead cells. I'm slippery and my surface is abrasion resistant. I resist stress by chewing, swallowing, intercourse and childbirth.
Name that Epithelia?
Stratified non kerantinized squamous
I form compact dead cells at the surface of skin, I retard water loss and resists penetration of disease. I'm found on the epidermis, especially on hands and feet.
My deepest layer of cells are cuboidal or columnar and I undergo continuous mitosis.
Who am I?
Stratified kerantinized Squamous
I'm found in sweat gland ducts, egg producing vesicles of ovaries and sperm producing ducts of testis. I'm responsible for sweat secretion, secrete ovarian hormones and produce sperm?
Name that Epithelia?
Found in urinary tract and umbilical chord. I stretch to allow the lining of urinary tract to fill.
What Epithelium am I?
Most abundant, widely distributed and histologically variable of the 4 tissue types?
Fibrous, Fat, cartilage, bone, blood, etc.... are examples of what type of tissue?
Binding of organs
Hint: BS SHIT PM
These are all functions of what?
Extra cellular fiber + ground substance = ?
Majority of Connective tissue is made of this?
Loose and dense are 2 types of what kind of connective tissue?
Fibrocytes produce what?
Extra cellular protein fibers
Tough, flexible and resist stretching found in tendons, ligaments and dermis?
I'm found in organs like spleen and lymph nodes. I;m thin collagen fibers that form a spnge like framework for organs. (stroma)
What am I?
Thin fibers made of elastin. I act like a rubber band and am found in the skin, lungs, areteries so they can expand?
What fiber am I?
Name the 2 fibrous Connective tissues?
Loose and Dense
these are three what?
Loose connective tissues
I loosely bind epithelia to deep tissues and allow passage of nerves and blood vessles through other tissues. Provide an area form immune defense and I underly nearly all epithelia.
What am I?
Loose Areolar Connective tissue
I'm made of adipocytes. I'm large, empty-looking cells with thin margins, little cytoplasm, and nucleus is pressed against the P.M. I'm used for energy storage, thremal insulation, cushioning and space filling.
I can be found in subcutaneous fat beneath the skin, breast, heart surface and kidney and eyes.
what am I?
Adipose Connective Tissue
I'm a mesh of reticular fibers and fibroblasts that form structural framework or (stroma) or organs and tissues.
I'm found in lymph nodes, spleen, thumus and bone marrow.
I'm infiltrated with blood cells and lymphocytes
What tissue am I?
Reticular Connective Tissue
How many and name the dense connective tissue types?
there are 2 irregular and regular
I am the capsule of organs or the dermis. I have little room for cells and ground substance but collagen runs in random directions. I enable tissue to resist unpredictable stress.
What am I?
Dense Irregular Tissue
I'm found in tendons and ligaments. My collagen fibers are closely packed and leave little open space. my fibers run parallel to one another. Few blood vessels and slow to heal.
What tissue am I?
Dense Regular Tissue
I have a flexible rubbery matrix and am a supportive connective tissue?
Cartilage is produced by__________.
Cells that secrete matirx and surround themselves in it in cavities called Lacunae are called this?
Once matrix is in the lacunae state what is it called?
Name the 3 types of cartilage?
I'm clear and glassy matrix with fine dispersed collagen fibers . I have no visible chondrocytes. You can find me in articular cartilage, costal cartilage and fetal skeleton. I ease joint movement.
what cartilage am I?
I'm found in the external ear and epiglottis. I have elastic fibers that form a weblike mesh amid lacunae and they are always covered by perichondrium. I provide elastic and flexible support.
Name that cartilage?
I have parallel collagen, fibers similiar to tendons and NO perichondrium. I can be found in the pubic symphysis interverbral discs, and meniscal pads. I'm used to resists compression and absorb shock @ joints.
What cartilage am I?
I am a ossuous tissue?
Name the 2 types of bones?
Spongy and compact
I fill the heads of ong bones and have delicate slivers and plates that give me my said name appearance?
I am more dense with no visible spaces and form the external surface of all bone?
List the structures found in compact bone:
hint- 7 LOOP CHL
- Haversian canal
I am found in compact bone, longitudinal cylinders where blood vessels and nerves travel?
I am an onionlike structure in compact bone?
What is an osteon and where is it found?
Haversian canal and surrounding lamellea
I am a mature bone cells found in compact bone?
What are the areas where osteocytes reside between lamellea called?
I allow osteocytes to stay in touch, I radiate from the lacunae, and I'm a fragile canal. What am I?
I am a tough fibrous layer covering bone?
I am a fluid connective tissue that travels through tubed vessels, my job is to traspirt cells and dissovled matter from place to place?
Name the formed elements in blood and what they are and do:
Hint - 3 LEP
Erythrocytes- RBC, no nuclei, transport O2/CO2
Leucocytes- WBC, defense against infection
Platelets- small cell fragments scattered amid blod cells for cotting and growth factor.
Nerve Cells are what?
Neuroglial or glial cells what are they?
several different types of supporting cells that protect and assist neurons.
Name the 3 parts of Neurons:
Hint: 3 DAN
- Nerve cell body or Soma
Soma houses what?
Nucleus and most organelles
These are branched processes that receive signals from other cells and transmit to soma what am I?
I am long fibers that send on going signals to other cells?
Where are neurons located and what's their function?
Brain, spinal chord and nerves
What is an excitable-specialized tisse?
I am contractile protein-striation consisting of ling cylindricular cells called muscle fiber? I am voluntary and striated
I am muscle that is only found in the heart, I am striated and function involuntarily?
Cardiac myocytes are joined end to end by these junctions called ___________, which allow electrical connections to travel rapidly from cell to cell and mechnical connections keep myocytes from pulling apart when heart contracts?
I have no straitions and am involuntary usually have a fusiform shape and found in visceral muscles?
I am the largest organ and 15% of body weight?
List the 3 layers:
I am a deep connective tissue of the skin?
I secrete and protect, keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. I lack blood vessels and need nutrients from underlying connective tissues. I have minimal nerve endings?
5 zones of the Epidermis?
- Stratum Basale
- Stratum spinosum
- Stratum granulosum
- Stratum lucidum
- Stratum corneum
I am a single layer of cubodial and low columnar cells resting on the basement membrane, mitosis occurs here?
List the 3 types of cells in the stratum basale layer:
- merkel cells
I synthesize or group together the melanin? I give differences in skin color.
What are touch receptors in the stratum basale layer called?
I am the majority of the cells in the stratum basale, I synthesize the keratin, undergo mitosis, and produce new epi cells?
I am sit on top of the stratum basale layer, I am several layers of keratinocytes, my deep cells undergo mitosis and replace epidermal cells at surface?
I am found in the stratum spinosum layer, I am macrophages that arise in bone marrow but migrate to the epidermis and capture pathogens and present it to the mmune system for response? I have 2 names
Langerhans cells or dendritic cells
I am 3-5 layers of keratinocytes, h20 proof, barrier between surface cells and deep layer. what layer am I?
I have no organelles present and am found only in the thick skin? Name that layer?
I am the layer of skin that exfoliates as dander, I am up to 30 layers of dead , scaly, keratinized cells?
I am dense irregular connective tissue plus fibers, contain bllid vessels, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, hair follicles, nail roots, sensory nerve endings, smooth muscle, and connections to skeletal muscle. What am I?
What are upward waves which are fingerlike extensions of the dermis; boundary between the dermis and epidermis?
Subcutaneous tissue, beneath the skin, more areolar and adipose tissue, highly vascularized and binds the skin to underlying tissues, pads the body, energy reservoir, and acts as thermal insulation?
What is red pigment carried in dermal blood vessels combines with collagen to produce flesh color in caucasian skin?
UV radiation stimulates ___________ synthesis and darkens skin.
I am another name for mole or freckle, I am made of concentrated melanin?
Yellow pigment acquired from egg yolk and yellow and orange vegetables, concentrates in the stratum corneum and subcutaneous fat, can be found on heels and calluses?
This is composed of dead, hard keratinized cells that grow from an abliqu tube in the skin called a follicle?
Hair or Pilus
what are the 3 types of hair?
- terminal hair
This is fine, downy , unpigmented hair of fetus in last 3 months of development
I replace Lanugo by birth?
This is long, coarse, and pigmented skin found on scalp, eyebrows, eyelashes and all over body?
zones of the hair:
4 zones BRSP
Swelling at base where hair orginates in dermis?
Remainder of hair within the follicle?
Portion of hair above the skin?
What is the vascular connetive tissue growing into the bulb as is its sole source of nutrition?
What is this a picture of?
Hair emerging from follicle with exfoliating epidermal cells
What is a Medulla?
core of loosely arranged cells and air space
I surround the medula and are composed of densely packed keratinized cells?
I am a single layer of scaly cells that overlap wach other like a roof shingle, with free edges directed upward. I am part of the hair?
I am part of the hair follicle, extension of epidermis and lie adjacent to hair root?
Epithelial root sheath
__________ derives from dermis and surrounds the epithelial sheath.
Connective tissue root sheath
_____ are bundels of smooth muscle fibers extending from dermal collagen fibers to the connective tissue root sheath of the follicle. (Causes goose bumps)
This is clear hard derivatives of the stratum corneum. Thin dead cells densely packed together and filled with parallel fibers of hard keratin?
Growth zone concealed beneath the skin at the proximal edge of the nail
I am the visible portion covering the fingertip?
Space beneath the free edge of the nail plate? (dirt collects here)
5 types of glands with 2 of them classified as sweat glands?
Sweat gland- most numerous glands of the skin, produce watery perspiration to cool the body?
Merocrine (eccrine) glands
Sweat gland- found in groin, anal region, axilla, areola, and beard areas. Ducts lead to nearby hair follicles. Does NOT have bad odor.
Apocrine sweat glands
These glands produce debum, an oily secretion that keeps the skin and hair from drying out and becoming brittle and cracked?
This gland is found in the ear canal, where its secretions combine with sebum and dead epidermal cells to form ear wax or cerumen?
Milk-producing glands developing during pregnancy and lactation, modified apocrine sweat galnds that produce richer secretions and bring it through the nipple?
What is this mucus secreteing cell called?
Name this epithelium and what part of the body it's from?
Stratified squamous nonkeritanized
Name this epithelium and what body part it's from?
simple cubodial and it's the kidney
ID organ and what are the 2 inclusions found in this organ called?
What type of epithelium is this and from what organ?
Name this layer?
What is the triangle shape between the cells called and what are the tubules inside the cells?
Interstitial cells of Leydig
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithilium
What does this goblet cell secrete and what organ is this?
Study of structure is called:
The study of Function is called:
Careful cutting and separation of tissues to reveal their relationships is:
How do we study living anatomy:
through ausculation- listening to the natural sounds of the body.
Palpation- process of feeling structures with the fingertips, such as palpating a swollen lymph node or taking pulse.
Name the indirecct imaging techniques:
- Radiology (x-ray)
- Magntic resonance imaging (MRI)
- Computed tomography (CT Scan)
"father of medicine" 400bc
2nd Century anatomist, set the standard for textbooks, but was incorrect due to laws of his time.
1st anatomy book (1543) on the strucure of the human body
developed the first microscope that could see single cells
He improved on the microscope and coined the term "cell"
What are the 2 theories that affect our understanding of the human body called?
Cell theory and Theory of Natural selection
Who wrote the On the Orgins of Species and The descent of man
Some individuals within a species have hereiditary advantages over their competitors.
This is what theory?
Theory of Natural selection
Change in the genetic composition of a population of organisms?
These are characteristics of _______
molecules broken down into simpler ones is ________
molecules synthesized from simpler ones is _________
Transformation of cells with no specialized function to cells committed to a function is called ____________.
Stands erect with feet flat, arms at side, and palms, face, and eyes facing forward. Standardized frame of reference.
This anatomical plane divides the body into right and left
thisplane passes through the midline of the body?
This plane divides the body into 2 unequal right and left sides?
This plane divides the front from back?
This plane divides the body horizontally (upper and lower)
name the directional terms- 10
Ventral (anterior), dorsal (posterior), superior, inferior, medial, lateral, proximal, distal, superficial, deep
What is included in the axial region:
Head, neck, and trunk
Name the 6 abdominal regions:
hypochondriac, lateral abdominal, injuinal, epigatric umbilical, hypogastric
The appendicular regions include what parts of the body?
Appendages, limbs, extremities
What 2 cavities will be found in the dorsal body cavity?
Cranial cavity and vertebral cavity
What 2 cavities are housed in the thoracic cavity?
pleural cavities, pericardial cavity
What 2 cavities are found in the abdominopelvic cavity?
abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity
Polarity, solvency, cohesion, adhesion, surface tension, thermal stability, chemcial reactivity.
These are all properties of _________, which is an ___________ molecule.
Tendency of molecules with the same substance to cling to each other is __________________.
Tendency of one molecule of substance to cling to another molecule of another substance is ________.
The elastic layer called surface film where water is held together is called _________.
Ability to participate in chemical reactions is called ________.
________ are inorganic elements that are extracted from soil by plants and passes up the food chain to humans.
This is 4% of human body weight and 3/4 of this is Ca and P?
RBC's carry _____ on hemoglobins.
This is a product of aerobic respiration?
______ is called organic because it was once thought that only living organisms made them. It bonds with other carbons and most other elements.
This is a biological macromolecule?
These biological macromolecules are variable in structure.
(fatty acids, triglycerides, etc...)
______ function in energy stroage but also thermal insulation, filler, binding organs together, and cushioning.
______ are major componenets of the cel membrane along with cholestrol.
_____ is the most versatile biological macromolecule in the body.
Structure, communication, membrane transport, catalysis, movement and cell adhesion.
These are functions of _______.
Nucleotides are _ _ _.
Nucleic Acids are _ _ _ and _ _ _.
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