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plant parts or something.. i dont know
What are the four types of plant tissues?
What does dermal mean?
What are the two types of dermal tissues?
What do epidermis cells do?
secrete the cuticle (wax) to prevent desication
protects plant from fungus, viruses, and bacteria
Where are epidermis cells at?
on the outside of the plant
Are epidermis living or nonliving?
What dermal tissue is boxlike?
What does cork do?
replaces epidermis in someolder areas of the plant
makes insulation for the plant
Are the cork cells dead or alive?
What are cork cells filled with?
What plant part has the most cork?
What are the vegatative organs of a plant?
What are the two types of vascular tissue?
What do xylem do?
carry water and minerals
What are the two types of xylem?
What plants have vessel xylem?
What plants have tracheid xylem?
What do phloem do?
What are the two types of phloem?
How do companion cells help the sieve tubes?
sieve tubes have no nucleus, but companion cells do
What type of vascular tissue is dead when functioning?
What type of vascular tissue is alive when functioning?
What is ground tissue?
fill in tissue
What are the three types of ground tissue?
big thinwalled cells
store food and water
small with thicker walls
store and support/strengthen
small with very thick walls
What are the two types of meristematic tissue?
What are meristematic tissues capable of?
Where do all new cells form?
Where are apical meristems?
tips of branches and roots
What meristematic tissue is involved in primary growth?
What is primary growth?
When a plant part lengthens
ex. tips of branches and roots
What are the two types of lateral meristems?
What does cork cambium do?
makes more cork
What does vascular cambium do?
makes more xylem and phloem
What is growth in diameter?
What meristematic tissue is involved in secondary growth?
Where are lateral meristems?
rings inside stems and roots
What are the jobs of roots?
What do roots absorb?
water and minerals
How do roots absorb water?
How do roots absorb minerals?
active transport (pumps)
What are the two types of nutrients?
macro and micro nutrients
plants need a lot to be healthy
ex. nitrogen, potassium, phosphorous
plants don't need as much of these to stay healthy
ex. copper, cobalt, iron
What tissue is involved in absorption?
What is conduction and what tissue does it involve?
carrying water and foor through the plant
What is anchorage?
holds plants in the ground-support
What is storage?
food produced in leaves and other green parts are stored in the roots
1 growing season-April, May-Sept.,Oct.
seeds survive for plants next year
ex. marigolds, zinnias, tomatoes
2 growing seasons
only seeds survive after the second season
lives many growing seasons-"bulbs"
ex. daffodils, crocuses, grass, roses, dandelions, crabgrass
What is a a radicle?
What is a primary root?
first root out of the seed, secondary comes later
What are the two types of root systems?
Where do taproots store food?
What root system do dicots have?
examples of plants with taproot systems
carrot, horseradish, beets
What root system do monocots have?
T/F all roots in a fibrous root system are the same size
examples of plants with fibrous root systems
What is the maturation region?
fully grown and specialized region of the root tip
What is the elongation region?
growth is lengthening and specializing
What are root hairs?
extensions of the epidermal cells that provide surface area for water absorption
What is a root cap made of?
What are the modified specialized roots?
What are adventitious roots?
they grow from stems and leaves not from other roots
What are the two types of adventitious roots?
Example of prop adventitious root
Example of climbing adventitious root
What are aerial roots?
live in the tropical rainforeset because there is high humidity.
Example of aerial stem?root?
What are naustoria?
roots on parasitic plants
Example of naustoria?
What are "knees"?
roots in swamps that allow the roots to get air
Where are "knees"?
swamps, ex. Everglades
Example of knees?
bald cypress trees
What are aromatic roots?
roots we use as spices
Example of aromatic roots?
What are the four jobs of stems?
support and display leaves
transport food and water
T/F size of the pith in a woody dicot stem never changes.
What is an example of an herbaceous monocot stem?
What is an example of an herbaceous dicot stem?
What is pith made of?
What is always towards the outside, xylem or phloem?
What is the epidermis for?
What are the sclerenchyma layers for?
support, they are nonliving
What are characteristics of woody stems?
inflexible, not green (brown/white), ex. bushes
What are characteristics of herbaceous stems?
green, flexible, ex. corn
What are fibers for?
What are the differences b/w monocot and dicot stems?
dicots have vascular cambium
dicot has cortex and pith, monocot just has pith
in dicot the fibrovascular bundles are in a ring, monocot ones are scattered
What is the vascular cambium for?
makes more xylem and phloem
grows in diameter
What is the cortex made of?
What is bark made of?
What is wood made of?
What is an annual ring?
Layer of spring and summer wood
What does the cork cambium do?
makes cork-meristematic tissue
What is girdling?
removing the bark around a tree in a ring
Who girdled trees?
Why did girdling kill trees?
it removes the phloem
What are wood/pith rays?
"spokes" from pith to cortex
allows for sideways movement
Where is the oldest xylem?
next to the pith
What is heartwood?
non-functioning xylem with clogged tubes
becomes storage area
darkens in color
What is sapwood?
lighter in color
What is the terminal bud for?
primary stem growth
What are bud scales for?
protection in the winter
What represents one year of growth on a stem?
distance from one bud scale scar to another
What does an auxiliary bud have?
What is a leaf scar?
where leaves previously were
What is a bud scale scar?
where bud scales were
What are lenticels?
holes in stem for gas exchange
What can leaf scars be used for?
used to ID plants through their leaf arrangements
T/F embryonic flowers can be on a stem too
What part of the root is are the bud scales like?
What plant hormone reforms bud scales?
What are the three types of leaf arrangements?
alternate leaf arrangement
one leaf per node
opposite leaf arrangement
two leaves per node
whorled leaf arrangement
three or more leaves per node
What are the three branching possibilities
due to apical dominance
What are the types of modified stems?
the tuber stores food
"eyes" are nodes
ex. crocuses, gladiolas, perennials
makes food for the stems
ex. onions, tulips, lilies
most are not perennials
What is the "paper" on an onion?
What is the new theory for water transportation called?
What did the old theory on water transportation say?
water goes into roots then is pushed up by the stem
gravity is a force
Why was the old theory on water transportation discarded?
they found out gravity is stronger than root pressure
water evaporation from leaves
like molecules sticking together
b/w water molecules
unlike molecules sticking together
b/w water and vessel (xylem) walls
the rising of water in narrow tubes
What forces allow water to go to the top of the tree?
capillarity, adhesion, cohesion, transpiration
What does transpiration do for the plant?
keeps the leaves cool so photosynthesis can occur
occurs in phloem-sieve tubes
where food enters the sieve tubes by active transport
where food leaves the sieve tubes for respiration or storage by diffusion
What is plant food?
10-25% sucrose in water
In the summer and autumn what is the source?
In the summer and autumn what is the sink?
roots and stem
used for respiration or storage
if storage sucrose turns into starch
In the fall what is the sink?
use sucrose to grow
In the fall what is the source?
roots and stem
starch turns back into sucrose and moves up the tree til leaves grow
What to aphids do?
use plant juices as food
leave their nose in plant
T/F inner wall of a guard cell is thicker than the outer wall
what happens when the stoma is closed?
water moves out
What happens when the stoma is open?
water moves in
the outer wall bulges more and opens the stoma
when water moves in it gains turgor pressure
transports potassium by active transport
water and potassium leak out
What are the type of modified leaves?
makes baby leaves
mod. for climbing
ex. peas, grapevines
start out green, turn brown
mod. for protection
ex. roses, cactus
live in swamps/bogs
eat bugs for protein because they live in N deficient soil
3 kinds of insectivorous plants
sundew-has hairs with "dew"-glue
pitcher plants-hairs that trap