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. What would you like to do?
What does it mean to perfect the soul?
Happiness is a perfection of the soul, to be what it should be, fulfill it; soul is brought to what it ought to perform (activity for Aristotle). Happiness is being reasonable and virtuous for Aristotle.
How is the truth of faith demonstrated?
Demonstrated in the way in which men and women live out their life
We are ordered toward an end (God) but we can choose to go against him
What are two types of wisdom? Which is more important?
Theoretical and practical widsom. Speculative is theoretical. Speculative is more important becuase it is about God and His understanding of the world. Speculative is tied with faith, associated with theological virtues.
What are the theological virtues?
Faith, hope and charity
What are the cardinal virtues?
Prudence (moderation), justice, courage and wisdom
Why is political science the highest science?
It is concerned with the good of teh people, to be virtuous, end of the government is to help us to be virtuous.
Any kind of social set up need to understand what?
The goal of human existence, which is the life of virtue
Why are the principle virtues called the cardinal virtues?
comes from the latin word meaning hinge with which everything hangs
How are theological virtues given to us?
through grace and faith
What are the virtues of wisemen?
Prudence and justice. Wise man orders things and governs them well
What does Aquinas think is the mastering art?
What makes something a science? how is theology a science?
1) methodology (builds upon itself, each part sets condition for the next part) and 2) object of investigation (God)
How is the Summa Theologica proceeded?
by way of dialectic
What are the two types of truths?
Natural truth that is self evident and that which can be grasped by human intellect. Divine truth that is constant with human intellect, but has to be given to use because it surpasses human intellect.
What are the two types of ends? How does it differ with Aristotle? What virtues do we need to reach each end?
Perfect and the imperfect (supernatural end). Aristotle sees one end (happiness). Natural end is revealed through reason, supernatural end revealed through faith. This life is a way station for a full life. Theological virtues to see supernatural end. Cardinal to reach natural end.
Why can we not reach our natural end by ourselves?
We are flawed, clouded by sin, so that even to live out our natural end, we need our theological virtues to perfect our natural selves
What helps us see what God wants us to be?
Faith. We live in the human condition; this prevent us from seeing what is best in us. God's grace allows us to be who we are suppose to be.
What is the starting point for Aquinas? How does he proceed from there?
Starting point is falling men and women. From there, he reflects how we are to live our live.
What is the purpose of Summa Theological?
The systematic integration between faith and reason. I believe to understand and I understand in order to believe.
What is virtue?
the perfection of a power. Perfection of an activity which one is performing. Eg. the virtue of wisdom perfects intelligence.
What are the different kinds of laws?
natural, human and divine
What are the first principles (inclinations) of the natural law?
- -self preservation (principle of self sacrificing for others is going against the principle but is a higher good)
- -natural inclination to reproduce and nurture kids
- -contemplate what is necessary to bring about preservation
- -eros, seek what is true
What is the purpose of human law?
Aristotle says that we need three kinds of goods to live the life of happiness; human law is the good that will help preserve our life. Human law make flesh the first principles to help us understand better and deal with those who seek to violate these principles.
What is natural law?
It has basis in human nature, because we can use our human intellect to make it evident.
Explain bonum est faciendum et prosqusnedum et malum vitandum.
good is to be done and pursued while evil is to be avoided. If we were to preserve our lives, we will choose good and avoid evil. Do good and avoid evil is the first principle of natural law.
What are divine laws?
God's idea of what we should be as human and acts that fulfill that nature.
Why are unjust laws not laws according to Aquinas?
Unjust laws are not laws becuase it violates the divine law. One is not obligated to follow those laws that violate the capacity for good life, the freedom God gives us. Human law can never go against natural or divine law.
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