A&P Ch. 1.txt

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A&P Ch. 1.txt
2012-01-22 05:24:21
Anatomy Physiology

Seeley's Principles of Anatomy and Physiology 2nd Edition Chapter 1
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  1. Surface Anatomy
    • 1. The study of external features, which serve as
    • landmarks for locating deeper structures. Ex: Boney Projections (A type of
    • Anatomy)
  2. Anatomical Imaging
    • 1. The use of X-Rays, Ultrasound, Magnetic
    • Resonance Imaging (MRI) and other technologies to create pictures of internal structures. (A type of Anatomy)
  3. Molecule and Atom
    Atoms can combine to form molecules such as water,sugar,and fat,protein,DNA

    The function of a molecule is for structure. Ex: Collogen in skin is strong until it ages.
  4. Physiology
    The scientific discipline that deals with the processes or functions of living things. Structures are dynamic.
  5. Two goals of Physiology
    1) To understand and predict the body's responses to stimuli.

    2) To understand how the body maintains conditions within a narrow range of valves in the presence of a continually changing environment.
  6. Human Physiology
    The study of specific organisms; the human.
  7. Cellular and Systematic Physiology are examples of.
    Physiology emphasize specific organizational levels.
  8. Chemical level
    Involves interactions between atoms, which are tiny building blocks of matter.
  9. Anatomical Abnormalities
    • Structures that are unusual of different from the normal pattern.
    • Ex: Someone with 12 fingers
  10. Anatomy
    The scientific discipline that investigates the structure of the body. Also to dissect, or cut apart and seperate, the parts of the body for study
  11. Systematic Anatomy
    • -The study of the body by systems and us the approach taken in this and most other intro-textbooks.
    • -(A type of Anatomy)
    • -Cardiovascular, muscular
  12. Regional Anatomy
    • The study of the orginization of the body by areas.
    • Ex: Head, Abdomen, arm
  13. Cells
    The basic structural and fuctional units of organisms, such as plants and animals.
  14. Organelles
    • Formed by molecules
    • The small structures that make up Cells.
    • Ex: The nucleus centers the cells information and mitochondria makes ATP. The cell types are not the same, but have a lot in common.
  15. Tissue
    • A group of similar cells and the materials surrounding them. The four primary tissues are: Epithelial, connective, muscle and nervous.
    • The characteristics of the cell and surrounding materials determine the function of the tissue.
  16. Organ
    • Composed of two or more tissue types that together perform one or more common functions. Organs work together to help maintain the body.
    • Ex: urinary bladder, skin, stomach, eye and heart.
  17. Organ System
    • A group of organs classified as a unit because of a common function or set of functions.
    • Ex: urianry system consist of kidneys, bladder, urethra and uretur.
  18. Organism
    • Any living thing considered as a whole- whether composed of on cell, suchas bacterium, or trillions of cells such as a human.
    • Human organsim is a complex of organ systems that are mutually dependent on one another.
  19. Integumentary system
    Provides protection, regulates tempature, reduces water loss, and produces vit.D precursors. consists of nails, hair, skin, and sweat glands.
  20. Skeletal System
    Provides protection and support, allows body movements, produces blood cells, and stores minerals and fat. Consists of bones, associated cartilages, ligaments, and joints.
  21. Muscular System
    Produces body movements, maintains posture, and produces body heat. Consists of muscles attached to the skeleton by tendons.
  22. Nervous System
    A major regulatory system that detects sensations and controls movements, physiological processes, and intellectual functions. Consists of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sensory receptors.
  23. Cardiovascular System
    Transports nutrients, waste products, gases and horomones thoughout the body; plays a role in the immune response to the regulation of body tempurature. Consists of the heart, blood vessles, and blood.
  24. Lymphatic System
    Removes forigen substances from the blood and lymph, combats disease, maintains tissue fluid balance, and transports fats from the digestive tract. Consists of the lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and other lymphatic organs.
  25. Respiratory System
    Exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood and air and regulates blood pH. Consists of the lungs and respiratory passages.
  26. Digestive System
    Preforms the mechanical and chemical processes of digestion, absorbtion of nutrients, and elmination of wastes. Consists of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, and accessory glands.
  27. Urinary System
    Removes waste products from the blood and regulates blood pH, ion balance, and water balance. Consists of the kidneys, urinary bladder, and ducts that carry urine.
  28. Female Reproductive System
    Produces oocytes and is the site of fertilization and detal development; produces milk for the newbornl produces horomones that influence sexual functions and behaviors. Consists of the ovaries, vagina, uterus, mammary glads, and associated structures.
  29. Male Reproductive System
    Produces and transfers sperm cells to the female and produces horomones that influnce sexual functions and behaviors. Consists of the testes, accessory structures, ducts, and penis.
  30. Organization
    The condition in which the parts of an organism have specific relationships to each other and the parts interact to preform specific functions.

    Cells are composed of highly specialized organelles, which depends on the functions of large molecules. Disruption may cause death of disfunction.
  31. Metabolism
    All of the chemical and physical changes taking place in an organism. This includes the ability to break down food molecules, and then can synthesize its own molecules. Neccesary for vital functions, such as responsiveness, growth development and reproduction.

    When the shape of a molecule changes, or the molecule moves, eneergy is used.
  32. Responsiveness
    The ability of an organism to sense changes in its external or internal enviorment and make the adjustments that help maintain its life. Responses include: movement towards water or food and away from danger or poor enviormental conditions. Also when maintain internal enviorment, such as sweating to lower body tempurature.
  33. Growth
    • Results in an increase in the size of all or part of an organism. It can occur from increase in cell number, or the amount of subtance surrounding a cell.
    • Ex: Bones become larger as bone cells grow.
  34. Development
    Includes the changes an organism undergoes through time, begenning with fertilization and ending at death. The greatest development is before birth. Development usually unvolves growth, but may also involve differentation.
  35. Differentation
    • Change in cell structure and function from generalized to specialized.
    • Ex: Following fertilization, generalized cells specialize to become specific cell types, such as skin, bone, or nerve. These form the tissues and organs.
  36. Reproduction
    The formation of new cells or new organisms. This is vital to have growth and tissue repair. The species will become extinct without it.
  37. Homeostasis
    The existance and maintenance of a relatively constant enviorment within the body. Fluid around the cell must maintain a constant tempurature, volume, and chemical content.
  38. Variables
    • When values can change, such as tempurature, volume, and chemical content.
    • Ex: Body tempurature decreases in cold.
  39. Set Point
    When homeostatic mechanisms, such as shivering, help to maintain body tempurature at a normal value. Tempurature may increase body tempurature above or below the _____.
  40. Normal Range
    Below or above the set point.
  41. Negative-Feedback Mechanisms
    • Maintains variation within a normal range, to maintain homeostasis. Consists of components: Receptor, Control Center, Effector.
    • Ex: Maintaning High Blood Pressure
  42. Receptor
    Monitors the value of a variable
  43. Control Center
    Recieves information about the variable from the receptor, establishes a set point, and controls the effector.
  44. Effector
    Produces responses that change the value of the variable.
  45. Positive-Feedback Mechanisms
    • Non homeostatic and are rare in healthy individuals.
    • Usually creates a cycle leading awat frin homeostasis and can result in death.
    • Ex: inadiquate delivery of blood to the cardiac muscle.
  46. Anatomical Position
    A person standing erect with the face directed forward, the upper limbs hanging to the sides, and the palms of the hands facing forward.
  47. Supine
    Lying face upward.
  48. Prone
    Lying face downward.
  49. Superior
  50. Inferior
  51. Cephalic
    Towards the head. (Superior)
  52. Caudal
    Towards the tail. (Inferior)
  53. Proximal
  54. Distal
  55. Anterior or Ventral
    • The front.
    • That which goes before.
  56. Posterior or Dorsal
    • The back.
    • Which follows.
  57. Medial
    Towards the midline.
  58. Lateral
    Away from the midline.
  59. Sagittal Plane
    Runs vertically through the body and seperates it into right and left parts.
  60. Median Plane
    A Sagittal Plane that passes through the midline of the body and divides it into equal right and left parts.
  61. Transverse or Horizontal Plane
    Runs parallel to the surface of the ground and divides the body into superior and inferior parts.
  62. Fontal or Coronal Plane
    Runs vertially from right to left and divides the body into anterior and posterior parts.
  63. Longitudinal Section
    A cut through the long axis of the organ.
  64. Cross or Transverse Section
    A cut at a right angle to the long axis.
  65. Oblique Section
    A cut made across the long axis at other than a right angle.
  66. Thoratic Cavity
    The rib cage surrounds it, and the muscular diaphragm seperates it from the abdominal cavity.
  67. Mediastinum
    Divides the thoratic cavity into right and left parts. A partition contaning the heat, thymus, trachea, esophogas, and other structures.
  68. Abdominal Cavity
    Contains abdominal muscles, the stomach, intestines, liver, spleen, pancreas, and kidneys.
  69. Pelvic Cavity
    Contains pelvic bones, urinary bladder, part of the large intestine, and the internal reproductive organs.
  70. Abdominopelvic Cavity
    The abdominal and pelvic cavities are not physically seperated, so they may be refered to like this.
  71. Serous Membranes
    Cover the organs of the trunk cavities and line the trunk cavities.
  72. Visceral Serous Membrane
    The inner membrane in contact with the organ.
  73. Parietal Serous Membrane
    The outer membrane that is not in contact with the organ.
  74. Serous Fluid
    • The cavity or space between the Visceral and Parietal membranes normally filled with a thin lubricating fluid.
    • Reduces friction on organs.
  75. Pericardial Cavity
    • Surrounds the heart.
    • The visceral pericardium covers the heart within a connective tissue sac lined with the parietal paricardium.
  76. Pleural Cavity
    • Surrounds each lung, which is covered by visceral pleura.
    • Located between the visceral pleura and parietal pleura and contains pleura fluid.
  77. Peritoneal Cavity
    • Visceral peritoneum covers many of the organs of the abdominopelvic cavity.
    • Located between the visceral peritoneum and parietal peritoneum and contains peritoneum fluid.
  78. Mesenteries
    • Consisits of two layers of peritoneum fused together.
    • Anchors the organs to the body wall and provide a pathway for nerves and blood vessles to reach organs.
  79. Retroperitoneal
    • Include the kidneys, the adrenal glands, the pancreas, parts of the intestines, and the urinary bladder.
    • Means, behind the peritoneum.