Bio 100

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Bio 100
2010-04-06 15:41:25

Chapters 8,9,10,11
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  1. _________ is the process where fungus covert the energy stored in certain organic molecules to light.
  2. The totality of an organisms chemical reactions is called __________
  3. _________ is an emergent proerty of life that arises from interactions between molecules within the orderly environment of the cell.
  4. A _______ begins with a specific molecule, which is then altered in a series of defined steps, resulting in a certain product. Each step is catalyzed by a specific enzyme.
    A catabolic pathway
  5. A pathway that releases energy by breaking down complex molecules to simpler compounds
    Catabolic pathway
  6. __________ consume energy to build complicated colecules from simpler ones (also called biosynthetic pathways
    Anabolic pathways
  7. Energy is
    the capacity to cause change.
  8. Energy can be associated with the relative motion of objects, this energy is called
    kinetic energy
  9. Stored energy is called
    potential energy
  10. Energy that is available for release in a chemical reaction is called
    chemical energy
  11. The portion of a system's energy that can perfrom work when temperature and pressure are uniform throughout the system of a cell is called
    Free energy AG
  12. Based on their freep-energy changes, chemical changes can either be
    exergonic (energy outward), or endergonic (energy inward)
  13. An ________ proceeds with a net release of free energy
    exergonic reaction
  14. An _________ is one that absorbs free energy frm its surroundings
    endergonic reaction
  15. Exergonic reactions are coupled with endergonic reaction by
  16. A cell does 3 main kinds of work:
    • Chemical work
    • Transport work
    • Mechanical work
  17. The pushing of endergonic reaction is known as
    chemical work
  18. The pumping of substances across membranes against the direction of spontaneous movement is known as
    transport work
  19. The beating of cilia is an example of
    mechanical work
  20. The bonds between the phosphate groups of ATP can be broken by
  21. The free energy required to phosphorylate ADP comes from
    exergonic breakdown reactions (catabolism) in the cell
  22. An _______ is a macromolecule that acts as a _________, a chemical agent that speeds up a reaction without being consumed by the reaction
    enzyme, catalyst
  23. the initial investment of energy for starting a reaction-the energy required to contort the molecules so the bonds can break is
    Activation energy (free energy of activation) (EA)
  24. An enzyme catalyzes a reaction by
    lowering the EA barrier, enabling the reactant molecules to absorb enough energy to reach the transition state even at moderate temperatures.
  25. The reactant an enzyme acts on is called its
  26. When an enzyme binds to its substrate it forms an
    enzyme substrate complex
  27. While enzyme and substrate are joined
    the catabolic action of the enzyme converts the substrate to products of the reaction
  28. Where the enzyme molecule binds to the substrate is called the
    active site
  29. The substrate is held into place by
    weak bonds, such as hydrogen and ionic bonds
  30. An enzymes activity-how efficiently it functions- is effected by
    general environmental factors, such as temperature and pH
  31. The rate of an enzymatic reaction can increase with
    increased temperature because substrates collide with active sites more frequently when the molecules move rapidly.
  32. The optimal pH for most enzymes falls in the range of
    pH 6-8
  33. Nonprotein helper for catalytic activity that may be hound tightly to the enzyme or loosely and reversibly to the substrate are called
  34. If the cofactor is an organic molecule, it is more specifically called a
  35. An inhibitor that reduces the productivity of an enzyme by blocking substrates from entering active sites are called
    Competitive inhibitors
  36. ____________________ do not directly compete with the substrate but bind to a different part of the enzyme changing its shape
    Noncompetitive inhibitors
  37. any case in which a protein function at one site is affected by the binding of a regulatory molecule to a seperate site. It may result in either inhibition or stimulation of an enzyme's activity
    is Allosteric regulation
  38. When ATP allosterically inhibits an ezyme in an ATP-generating pathway, the result is
    feedback inhibition
  39. Energy flows into an ecosystem as ________ and ultimately leaves as _______
    Sunlight, heat
  40. Catabolic pathways
    yield energy by oxidizing organic fuels
  41. Catabolic pathways are ______________ that release stored energy by breaking down complex molecules.
    Metabolic pathways
  42. _________________-- is a partial degredation of sugars that occurs without the use of oxygen
  43. The most prevavent and efficient catabolic pathway is __________ in which oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel
    aerobic respiration
  44. ________________ doesn't use oxygen
    anaerobic respiration
  45. When there is an electron transfer in a chemical reaction it is a
    redox reaction
  46. In a redox reaction, the loss of electrons from one substance to another is
  47. The addition of electronsto another substance in a chemical reaction is known as
  48. An electron shuttle in a chemical reaction is
  49. Cellular respiration uses an ____________________ to break the fall of electrons to oxygen into several energy releasing steps.
    Electron transport chain
  50. The 3 stages of cellular respiration are
    • Glycolysis
    • The citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle)
    • Oxidative phosphorylation: electron transport chain and chemiosmosis
  51. Glycolysis occurs in the ____________________, it begins the degredation process by breaking _________ into two molecules of a compound called __________
    cytoplasm, glucose, pyruvate
  52. Upon entering the _________________ via active transport, pyruvate is converted to a compound called _______________-
    mitochondrion, Acetyl CoA
  53. The _______________________ takes place in the mitochondrial matrix of eukaryotes or in the ________ of prokaryotes, it completes the breakdown of glucose by oxidizing a derivitive of pyruvate to carbin dioxide.
    Citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle)
  54. When ATP is made by direct trannsfer of a phosphate group from an organic substrate to ADP by an enzyme it is called
    Substrate-level phosphorylation
  55. The ________________ is a collection of molecules embedded in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion
    electron transport chain
  56. Populating the inner membrane of the mitochondrion are many copies of a protein complex called ______________ the enzyme that actually makes ATP from ADP
    ATP synthesis
  57. Two types of fermention are
    Alchol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation
  58. In alcohol fermention _______________ is converted to ethanol in two steps: the first step releases carbon dioxide and converted to acetaldehyde. In the second step acetaldehyde is reduced by the supply of _______ needed for the continuation of glycolysis
    pyruvate, NAD+
  59. During ________ pyruvate is reduced by NADH to form lactate as an end product with no release of CO2
    lactic acid fermention
  60. Self-feeders are called
  61. Organisms that live on compounds produced by other organisms are called
  62. Photosynthesis converts
    light energy to the energy of food
  63. The sites of photosynthesis in plants are
  64. The dense fluid within the chloroplasts is called
  65. The chloroplast splits ___________ into _______________
    hydrogen, water
  66. Photosynthesis involves
    redox reactions
  67. Photosynthesis requires energy, therefore it is
  68. The 2 stages of photsynthesis are
    • light reactions
    • the Calvin cycle
  69. Light reactions convert
    light to chemical energy
  70. The Calvin cycle makes
  71. A ____________ is composed of a a protein complex called a ___________ surrounded by a several light-harvesting complexes
    photosystem, reaction center complex
  72. Each ____________ consists of various pigment molecules bound to proteins
    light harvesting complex
  73. Photosystem I and photosystem II populate the
    thylakoid membrane
  74. The Calvin Cycle uses ______ and ___ to convert CO2 to _______
    ATP, NADPH, sugar
  75. The Calvin cycle is anabolic it
    consumes energy
  76. _______ enters the Calvin Cycle in the from of CO2 and leaves in the form of ___________
    Carbon, sugar
  77. The Calvin Cycle spends _____ as an energy source and consumes ______ as reducing power for adding high energy electrons to make sugar
  78. 3 Phases of the Calvin Cycle are
    • Carbon Fixation
    • Reduction
    • Regeneration of CO2 acceptor
  79. The process by which a signal on a cells surface is converted to a specific cellular resoponse is a series of steps called
    a signal transduction pathway
  80. both plant cells and animal cells have _______________ that allow molecules to pass between adjacent cells
    cell junction
  81. Two cells in an animal cell may communicate by interaction between molecules on their surfaces this is called
    cell to cell recognition
  82. The three stages of cell signalling are
    • Reception
    • Transduction
    • Response
  83. _______________- is the target cell's detection of a signaling molecule coming from outside the cell
  84. ______________ (the second stage of cell signaling) is the binding of the signaling molecule which changes the receptor protein in some way
  85. ___________ The third stage of cell signaling where the transduced signal triggers a cpecific cellular ____________
    Response, response
  86. A molecule that specifically binds to another molecule is called a
  87. Intracellular receptor proteins are found in either the _______ or the ___ of target cells
    cyoplasm, nucleus
  88. A _________________ is a plasma receptor that works with the help of a _________, a protein that binds the energy rich molecule GTP.
    G-protein-couples receptor, G Protein
  89. ___________________ belong to a major class of plasma membrane receptors characgterized by having enzymatic activity.
    Receptor tyrosine kinases
  90. A _________ is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of phosphate groups
  91. A ________________ is a type of membrane receptor containing a region that can act as a "gate" when the receptor changes shape
    ligand-gated ion channel
  92. The binding of a specific signaling molecule to a receptor on the plasma membrane triggers the first step in the chain of molecular interactions called
    the signal transduction pathway
  93. _______________ and ___________________-- of proteins is a widespread cellular mechanism for regulating protein activity.
    Phosphorylation, adephosphorylation
  94. The general name for an enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from ATP to a protein is
    protein kinase
  95. Important in the phosphorylation cascade are the _________________, enzymes that can rapidly remove phosphate groups from proteins, a process called _________________.
    Protein phosphateses, dephosphorylaiton
  96. Many signaling pathways also involve small, nonprotein, water-soluble molecules or ions called
    second messengers
  97. Binding epinephrine to the plasma membrane of a live cell elevates the cytosolic concentration of a compound called
    cyclic adenosine monphosphate (cycle AMP or cAMP)