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2010-04-05 17:47:11
mycology mushrooms

Mushrooms Terms
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  1. Acrid (taste)
    causing a biting sensation on the tongue, intensely burning and/or sharp
  2. Adnate (gills)
    bluntly attached to the stalk, when the gills are directly attached to the stalk
  3. Adnexed (gills)
    when the gill is notched just at the stalk
  4. Aerolate
    being finely cracked
  5. Agaric
    mushroom term for any gilled mushroom
  6. Allantoid
    having a sausage shape
  7. Ammonium Hydroxide
    • NH4OH
    • used as a mushroom detection reagent; cleaning ammonia may also be used
  8. Amyloid
    turning blue, violet, or black when an iodine reagent is used such as Melzer's Reagent
  9. Angular (spores)
    the 4 to 6 sided spores found in the genus Entoloma
  10. Annulus
    the ring of tissue left on the stalk from the breaking of the veil, most often the partial veil
  11. Apical Pore
    a pore or the thin spot at the apex of a spore
  12. Apiculus
    the projection on some basidiospores that bears the scar which was left when the spore was discharged from the basidium, the small projection that attaches the spore to the basidium
  13. Appendiculate
    margin of a cap that has patches of veil tissue and/or fibrils hanging from it
  14. Appressed
    flattened or flat lying against the surface like in appressed hairs
  15. Areolate
    cracked into more or less hexagonial areas (areolae) almost looking like a dried out mud flat
  16. Asco
    prefix used to indicate association with an ascus or ascus-bearing fungus eg. Ascomycete, Ascospore
  17. Ascus
    a cell in which spores are formed following fusion of two nuclei and division of the resulting nucleus, the saclike cell that produces the spores of the Ascomycetes
  18. Attached (gills)
    gills that touch the stalk at some point in their development and are attached to it; "free" is the opposite of "attached"
  19. Azonate (cap)
    having no concentric zones or bands
  20. Basidio
    prefix used to indicate association with a basidium or basidium bearing fungus, eg. Basidiomycete, Basidiospore
  21. Basidium
    a special cell on which spores are formed following the fusion of two nuclei and division of the resulting nucleus
  22. Bay (color)
    Reddish Brown
  23. Bolete
    mushroom term for any member of the Boletaceae
  24. Boletinoid
    • tube mouths on a bolete
    • elongated along the radii of the cap as in Suillus pictus
  25. Brittle (stalk)
    Breaking with a clean snap
  26. Broad-Leaved (type of tree)
    not like conifers, pines, and needlelike leaves
  27. Buff (type of color)
    pale yellow with touch of gray, a dingy pale yellow
  28. Bulbous (of the stalk)
    when the base of bottom of the mushroom stalk has an abrupt enlargement like a bulb
  29. Button (of a mushroom)
    a young mushroom still having the veil intact, when the cap has not expanded
  30. Calyptrate (spore)
    the loose covering around one end of some basidiospores
  31. Campanulate (cap)
    Bell shaped
  32. Cap
    • The umbrella-like structure of the mushroom that has the gills or tubes.
    • The cap is at the apex of the stalk.
    • The technical term for the cap is "Pileus"
  33. Carbonaceous
    like burned wood or charcoal leaving black stains on skin
  34. Caustic Potash
    another name for KOH
  35. Cell
    The living protoplasmic unit into which hyphae braks down to
  36. Cellular Cuticle (cap)
    pear or round shaped cells that form the outer layer of the mushroom's cap
  37. Cespitose
    growing in clusters with the bases of all the mushroom stalks attached to one another
  38. Cheilocystidium
    A cystidium on the edge of the mushroom's gill or tube
  39. Chrysocystidium
    a cystidium that has yellow and coagulated contents when revived in KOH
  40. Clamp Connection
    a specialized hyphal branch that attaches to other hyphal strands. This condition only occurs in some mushrooms, not all
  41. Clavate
    when the stalk is club shaped or thickened evenly to the base
  42. Cleft Foot
    the deeply dissected base of Amanita brunnescens
  43. Close (gills)
    when the spacing of the gills is close
  44. Conidiospore
    a spore that is formed with no nuclear fusion, and is produced externally
  45. Conifer
    a tree that has cones
  46. Coniferous
    having cones, pine fir and hemlock
  47. Conk
    a term used for the large wood destroying fruiting bodies of hydnums and polypores on trees
  48. Context
    the flesh of the mushroom, both stalk and cap
  49. Corrugated
    having deep wrinkles
  50. Cortina
    when the veil is cobweb like and composed of loosely placed silky fibrils
  51. Cortinous
    the weblike appearance of some partial veils like on Inocybe and Cortinarius
  52. Cristate
    crested like a rooster's comb
  53. Crowded (gills)
    whent he gills are very close together
  54. Crustose
    like small flat scabs, crust like
  55. Cuticle
    when the surface tissue zone is differentiated, sometimes this zone can actually be separated from the mushroom cap or stalk, the outer layer or skin. Pileipellis is another term for this same condition
  56. Cutis
    when the cuticle is made by dry interwoven hypae
  57. Cystidium (also cystidia pl.)
    microscopic sterile cell with a feature such as thicker wall, large size, different contents, or eye catching shape. When they are classed by location they are termed cheilo and pleuro, hence pleurocystidia. If classed by contents they are known as macro and chryso, hence macrocystidia.
  58. Deciduous
    referring to trees that lose their leaves seasonally, not like pines or other evergreens
  59. Decurrent (gills)
    when the gills extend downward on the stalk
  60. Deliquescing (gills)
    when the gills dissolve into an inky fluid like in Coprinus
  61. Dextrinoid
    when the mushroom material becomes a reddish brown in Melzer's reagent or other types of iodine solution. See also Amyloid.
  62. Dichotomous
    when one divides into two
  63. Disc (cap)
    this is the center part of the surface going out about halfway to the margin
  64. Distant (gills)
    when the gills are not close together but widely spaced, well separated
  65. Divergent Gill Tissue (gill)
    in cross section the cells seem to sweep outward from the center when viewed with the microscope
  66. Eccentric
    when the stakl is not attached in the center of the cap, off center
  67. Echinate
    having small pointed spikes or spines
  68. Echinulate
    having very small pointed spokes or spines
  69. Evanescent
    disappearing or vanishing
  70. Farinaceous
    when the taste and/or odor is mealy, like that of fresh ground wheat
  71. Fascicle
    a small bundle
  72. Ferric Sulphate
    • FeSO4
    • when 3% solution in water is placed on certain mushroom flesh a green color reaction is noted.
  73. Fertile
    when the mushroom is capable of producing spores and/or the mushroom spores themselves are capable of good genetic growth
  74. Fetid (smell)
    having the odor of rotted meat, an ill-like smell
  75. FeSO4
    Ferrous Sulphate, a reagent solution used in certain macrochemical tests that contains 10% ferrous sulphate and 90% water
  76. Fibril
    a soft or think thread like strand, a minute hair
  77. Fibrillose
    when covered with appressed threads and/or hairs
  78. Filamentous Cuticle (cap)
    the thread-like cells which form the outer layer of some mushroom caps
  79. Floccose
    Woolly or cottony like hairs
  80. Free (gills)
    when the gills are not attached to the stalk
  81. Fruiting Body
    the entire mushroom
  82. Fungus
    a plant organism that reproduces by spores and lacks chlorophyll
  83. Fungoid
    very close to fungus, fungi like
  84. Furfuraceous
    when there is a rough look like that of bran like small particles
  85. Fuscous (color)
    a dusky brown
  86. Fusiform
    see Fusoid
  87. Fusoid
    when both ends are tapered like the shape of a spindle
  88. Gelatinous Cuticle (cap)
    the gelatin-like slimy substance forming the outside layer of the mushroom cap
  89. Genus
    the next highest grouping in biology that is above the species grouping. The Genus is always capitalized, and it is always used just before the species. If the mushroom is in the Genus Psylocybe and it is the cubensis species, it is placed as "Psylocybe cubensis"
  90. Germ Pore (spore)
    the very thin spot on the wall of the spore through which the tiny sprout of hyphae comes out when the spore germinates. Most of the time it is at the apex of the spore and for this reason it is also called an apical pore.
  91. Gill
    the knife-blade like structures radially going out from the stalk's attachment to the underside cap of the mushroom (gilled mushrooms). Also know as lamellae (lamella sng.)
  92. Glabrous
    having no hair, bald
  93. Glandular Dots
    when the stalk has slightly sticky spots as with boletes
  94. Glaucous
    having the appearance of being frosted
  95. Gleba
    the mass of spores inside a puffball
  96. Globose
  97. Gluten
    the viscous liquid that makes some mushrooms feel slimy
  98. Glutinous
    the slimy ooz that hangs from the margin of the cap especially during wet weather
  99. Gregarious
    when mushrooms are found growing in groups of clusters and the stalks to do not connect at the base. It is the condition in the middle of scattered and cespitose
  100. Habit
    how the mushroom appears - cespitose, gregarious, scattered, or solitary
  101. Habitat
    what type of environment the specific mushroom likes, or is found
  102. Hardwood
    referring to the wood or actual trees of most deciduous trees. The wood is hard and heavy
  103. Heteromerous
    when there are two types of tissue cells like in cases of the Genus Russulaceae
  104. Horns
    the microscopic projection on the cystidia, most of the times at teh apex
  105. Hyaline (spore)
    having the appearance of translucent or being transparent, having no color
  106. Hymenophore
    the part of the mushroom that has the hymenium
  107. Hyphae (hypha sng)
    the single thread of growth that comes from the spore of vegetative part of the mushroom or it's mycelium
  108. Imbricate (cap)
    when the caps are found growing one just above the other
  109. Inamyloid
    when the mushroom material does not turn blue or dark rusty orange to red in any of the iodine reagents
  110. Inferior (annulus)
    Located at the base of the stalk
  111. Interwoven Gill Tissue
    when cross section is prepared the cells of the gill are entwined and have no pattern when viewed under the microscope
  112. KOH
    Chemical symbol for Potassium Hydroxide. Usually used as 3% in water to prepare specimens for microscopy as with spores. Also used to check color reactions to mushroom material, and to prepare specimens for mounting under the microscope.
  113. Lacerate
    having a torn appearance
  114. Lamella
    the gill of a mushroom - technical term
  115. Lamellate
    Like that of a gill
  116. Latex
    the liquid that comes forward when some mushrooms are cut
  117. Lattice
    when the cuticle is made up of hypae that ascends and is interwoven
  118. Leptocystidium
    when the cystidium has a thin wall
  119. Leathery (cap and/or stalk)
    will not break easily, hard to tear apart, tough
  120. Long Striate (spores)
    the furrows or lines that go down the full length of the spore and/or the stalk
  121. Lubricous
    when the mushroom has a buttery feeling
  122. Macrocystidium
    when the cystidium is big and have oily contents like the ones found in the Genus Russulaceae
  123. Margin
    the most outer part and edge for either the gill or cap of the mushroom, the outer or edge part
  124. Melzer's Reagent
    an iodine type reagent used to test for the presence of starch in spores and other mushroom tissue. It contains 1.5 grams of potassium iodide, 21 grams of chloral hydrate, and 20 grams of water. The positive reaction is reffered to as "amyloid" This blue-black color change. If it changed to rusty red it is called "dextriniod", if no color change it is called "inamyloid"
  125. Membranous
    like that of a membrane or thin covering
  126. Micron
    a very small unit of measure, 3000 microns are in a 1/8th inch, used to give the size of spores
  127. Mycelium (pl mycelia)
    a mass of hyphae, the vegetative tissue portion, the normal physical growing state of the mushroom plant
  128. Mycology
    the study of all fungi
  129. Mycophagist
    a person who eats mushrooms or other fungi, a mushroom lover, one who is a mushroom fancier
  130. Mycophagy
    the act of eating fungi
  131. Mycorrhizae
    the relationship between mushrooms and other fungi with the root tip systems of specific trees or other plants
  132. Ochraceous (color)
    dingy yellow to dull brownish yellow
  133. Operculate
    this is an ascus that opens by a lid (the lid is known as the opercuium) this enables tha spore to discharge
  134. Order
    the next major biological grouping above the "family" grouping, eg. Agaricales, all mushrooms end with "ales"
  135. Ornamentation
    microscopic feature on certain spores which looks like sculpturing on their wall and may appear as lines, ridges, dots, or warts
  136. Overlapping
    imbricate mushrooms growing right above eachother closely
  137. Ovoid
    not really round but more egg shaped
  138. Pedicel
    a narrow stalk or base
  139. Pleurocystidium
    the cystidium when it appears on the side of the gill
  140. Plicate
    having the look of being pleated
  141. Polypore
    a mushroom that has no gills bur has a pariod hymenophore, Aphyllophorales
  142. Pore
    a small hole in the hymenophore under the cap, the tube's opening
  143. Poroid
    that which has pores
  144. Potassium Hydroxide
  145. Pruinose
    Looks as if it is powdered or lightly frosted, reflecting light from very tiny particles cause this appearance
  146. Pseudorhiza
    the process of a root like structure that comes up from deep in the ground to the surface and bares the fruited body
  147. Raphanoid
    when the taste and/or small is that of a radish
  148. Reticulate
    when the spore of stalk have a pattern of lines or ridges
  149. Rhizomorphic
    when the mycelium has small rope-like or string-like appearance among the regular cotton look. It is solid aggregation of hyphae
  150. Rimose
    having the appearance of being cracked
  151. Ring
    the common term for the membranous annulus around the stalk
  152. Rugose
    having the appearence for being wrinkled
  153. Saprophyte
    a mushroom that lives on dead organic matter
  154. Scattered
    when the fruiting of a mushroom is scattered and over a good distance
  155. Scurf
    small scales many times like of bran
  156. Septum (the pl speta)
    the crosswall within hypha which divides the cells from each other
  157. Sphaerocysts
    globose like cells inside the mushroom fruit, the Russulaceae have this characteristic
  158. Spathulate
    spoon shaped, expanded upper portion with a narrow base
  159. Spawn
    a large mass of mycelium that can be used to inoculate fruiting substrate
  160. Species
    the last biological grouping of individual life forms that all have certain features in common
  161. Specific Epithet
    this is the 2nd part of species name
  162. Spine
    a small cone shape with a point
  163. Spore
    serves same purpose as "seeds" but microscopic and measured in Microns
  164. Squamule
    a very small scale
  165. Squamulose
    having small scales
  166. Sterile
    • a cell that does not produce spores, a mushroom that produces no spores or it's spores will not reproduce a mushroom
    • also meaning "contamination free"
  167. Stalk
    the stem-like structure that supports the cap, also known as the stipe
  168. Striate
    having grooves, ridges, or lines
  169. Sulcate
    having grooves or is grooved
  170. Taxon (pl is taxa)
    the taxonomic group of any genus, family, order or species
  171. Terrestrial
    when the mushroom is gound growing from the ground
  172. Toadstool
    a common term used for poisonous mushrooms
  173. Tomentum
    when there is a covering of soft hair, tomentose is the term meaning covered with soft hair
  174. Trichodermium
    a cuticle that is composed of erect hyphae and is longer than one cell
  175. Truncate
    abruptly sliced off leaving a flat apex, like that caused by an apical pore
  176. Tube
    the bolete's basic hymenophore unit, single tubes hang parallel by the force of gravity and open by a pore
  177. Tube Mouth
    the tissue material around the pore of a tube
  178. Tuberculate
    having tubercles, as wart-like or knob-like structures of growth
  179. Turf
    when the cuticle is composed of erect long and narrow cells
  180. Type
    exact element of specimen, illustration, or collection whereby the name of a taxon is also attached. It does not have to be typical or representative of the taxon
  181. Umbo
    a raised convex or conic area in the center of the mushroom cap
  182. Variant
    a term designated to a mushroom that differs only slightly from the formal designated proper mushroom name. Another variation from the normal
  183. Variety
    the subdivision of a species
  184. Veil
    a think layer of tissue, the partial veil and the universal veil
  185. Ventricose
    when the middle of the stalk is swollen or enlarged
  186. Viscid
    slimy or sticky to the touch
  187. Volva
    a cup-like structure under the ground level that holds the stalk, what remains of the universal veil around the base of the stalk after the veil has ruptured
  188. Wart
    small pyramidal or squatted chunks of tissue on the cap or similar shapes on a spore
  189. Zonate
    having different zones
  190. Zone
    a concentric zone or band that is of different appearance from the rest of the surface of the cap