US History midterm review

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US History midterm review
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  1. Ice Age
    period in Earths history with low global temperatures and glaciers covering large areas
  2. Mayans
    were before the Aztecs and had the most advanced writing, calendrical and mathematical systems
  3. Aztecs
    The great pyramid in the capital was the center of religious life, Human sacrifices were common and they lived in Mexico
  4. Changes in Climate
    12,000 years ago the climate warmed, mammoths and other mammals were killed by hunters and shifts of climate, and Paleoindians also had the to change their ways of life
  5. What was the early Native American society like?
    The early Indians called Paleoindians crossed the Bering Strait, travelled in small bands, tracking and killing large game for food, agriculture began, maize became the main crop and social changes depended on farming.
  6. What was the Early American cultures like?
    early native Americans had no government, chiefs with limited authority, different gods, and men hunted and women gathered and made food.
  7. Iroquois
    people of the Long House
  8. Prince Henry of Portugal
    sponsored ship builders and map makers, and founded a school of navigation
  9. Navigation and ship building
    Caravel was perfected, and square sails were combined with triangular ones
  10. Slavery in Africa
    Humans were being used as items of trade
  11. What was the Beginning of the slave trade?
    Portuguese conquered a portion of Morroco and established trading posts, the thing that was most valuable was the slaves, Portuguese did not invent the slave trade but they heavily expanded it.
  12. What were motivations for exploring the new world?
    • Europeans search for route to Asia and Africa, and
    • countries desire to accumulate wealth through trade
  13. Christopher Colombus
    believed he could reach Asia by sailing westward, he first sought support from Portugal but the king warned he wouldn’t make it so he went to their rival Spain. He asked Ferdinand and Isabella to give him their support and they gave it 7 years later, after 33 days Colombus landed in the Bahamas and believed he was in Asia. He turned violent in search of gold and convinced the Spanish monarchs to sell the native islanders for a profit.
  14. Amerigo Vespuchi
    explored the South American coast and deemed it a new continent
  15. Ferdinand Magellan
    circled the globe
  16. Hernan Cortez
    captured the Aztec empire
  17. The Colombian Exchange
    The exchange between the old world and the new. Diseases spread to the Native Americans, new livestock was introduced, and agriculture changed
  18. Protestant Reformation
    a movement were people protested against the church
  19. Viceroyalties
    when the Spanish crown divided the American empire into two regions each ruled by a king
  20. Mestizos
    Children of mixed Spanish and Indian ancestry
  21. Hernando de Soto
    led expeditions searching for riches, frustrated after searching he massacred villages, and burned towns, after he died he and his men left behind new deadly diseases
  22. Coronado
    • marched from Mexico to the South West, the Pueblo Indians told of riches in the great plains, he crossed to the great plains and finding nothing took bloody
    • revenge on the pueblo Indians
  23. St. Augustine
    • The Spanish hoped to create a defensive zone by occupying Florida to keep Europeans out of Mexico, the French built a base on the coast of Florida
    • and Spanish destroyed the base and founded this town
  24. What did Spain establish?
    the colony of New Mexico
  25. Northwest Passage
    a water route to Asia through Canada, French explorers were interested in finding this.
  26. New France
    in Canada the region around the St. Lawrence river, Cartier explored this.
  27. The St. Lawrence river
    the river in New France
  28. Beaver fur trade
    • Indians eagerly traded fur for metal arrow heads, knives, and iron, the Indians began killing beavers faster then the animals could reproduce and
    • instead invaded other indian tribes for fur to trade, this provoked wars between indian groups and killed one another in competition for fur
  29. Quebec
    trading post, first permanent European settlement in Canada
  30. Samuel de Champlain
    Quebecs founder, traded with Indian tribes, in return they expected him to help them attack their enemies the Iroquois, he and his men battled the Iroquois and won because they had guns
  31. Robert de laSalle
    was hoping to find the Northwest Passage, instead he claimed a territory around the Mississippi river for France and called it Louisiana.
  32. New Orleans
    near the Mississippi river the French founded this territory which became the colony’s largest town and leading seaport
  33. Roanoke Colony
    Sir Walter Raleigh sent men to build a settlement on an Island, they return a year later, Raleigh tries again this time with women and children, After the war the colony was totally deserted.
  34. Joint-stock company
    a business venture founded and run by a group of investors, who were to share in the company’s profits and losses.
  35. Sir Walter Raleigh
    tried to start the Roanoke colony
  36. Jamestown
    colony in Virginia, was the first permenant settlement
  37. John Smith
    was put in charge of Jamestown at 28 years old.
  38. Headright System
    50 acres to anyone who paid his way to Virginia
  39. House of Burgesses
    the first representative body in colonial America.
  40. 1619
    Important year, women were sent to Jamestown, 1st Africans arrived, 1st legislature body in America.
  41. Powhatan
    the chief of Indians in Jamestown, war broke out between the Indians and colonists, the colonists captured his daughter Pocahontas and he made peace with them.
  42. Pocahontas
    Powhatans daughter, converted to Christianity and married a colonist named John Rolfe.

    ·
  43. What was the importance of tobacco?
    Jamestown needed a marketable crop to sustain itself and they soon discovered the ability to grow this crop, it made big bucks in England, and company officials restricted it but soon it was everywhere


  44. Royal colony
    belonged to the crown·
  45. What type of colony was virgina?
    Virginia became a royal colony·
  46. Bacons Rebellion
    The English expandedaway from Jamestown to less fertile lands, it cost them more to transport their crops, the governor William Berkley put taxes on the newcomers and rewarded the rich. A revolt started lead by him, him and his followers droveout the governor and burned the town, 1 month later he died of disease andthe rebellion collapsed. As a result the king appointed a new governor andtaxes were lowered and farmers were granted better land.
  47. What were the Southern colonies?
    • Virginia-Jamestown
    • Maryland
    • NorthCarolina
    • SouthCarolina
    • Georgia
  48. Maryland
    King Charles I granted 10million acres to George Calvert, Lord Baltimore, it was a proprietary colony and was the possession to Lord Baltimore and his heirs, it was intended to be a refugee for Catholics , he planned to divide the land into manors but died before the settlement·
  49. Lord Baltimore
    was the sole possessor of Maryland·
  50. Proprietary colony
    belonged to powerful individuals or companies·
  51. The Carolinas
    • Were established and named after Charles I, the first settlement and capital was Charles Town, it was a proprietary colony owned by the Lord proprietors in England, The colonies rejected this
    • control and demanded to be a royal colony , the king appointed governors and elected assemblies·
  52. Georgia
    began as a proprietary colony to protect South Carolina from Spanish Florida, James Oglethorpe led the colony, and it was designed for English debtors. Most of the first colonists were religious refugees or poor English, There were strict rules: no alcohol,no slaves, work your own land and no large plantations. Colonists protested andit became a royal colony·
  53. James Oglethorpe
    led the colony of Georgia·
  54. New England colonies
    • - Massachussets
    • - NewHampshire
    • - RhodeIsland
    • - Connecticut
  55. Middle Colonies
    • -New York
    • -New Jersey
    • -Delaware
    • -Pennsylvania


  56. Why did Puritans settle in New England?
    Puritans settled in New England for religious freedom·
  57. Plymouth colony
    pilgrims crossed theAtlantic on the Mayflower to find the colony on the shore of Massachusetts Bay·
  58. John Calvin
    The puritans followed his teachings, they believed they could prepare Gods saving grace by leading moral lives, praying devoutly, reading the bible, they believed God alone determined who was saved·
  59. Conversion
    the transforming experience when individuals felt grace in their souls and they thought they were saved·
  60. Separatists
    groups who wished to separate from the Anglican church and begin their own churches·
  61. Puritans
    wanted to purify the church of England, they followed John Calvins teachings, believed in conversion, and had values of thrift, diligence and morality·
  62. Pilgrims
    the first puritan immigrants and founded Plymouth colony·
  63. Mayflower Compact
    • the framework for self government of the Plymouth
    • colony, was signed on the Mayflower ship by
    • the pilgrims·
  64. Massachusetts Bay Colony
    Puritan merchants received a royal charter for a joint-stock enterprise the Massachusetts Bay Colony, they left for the colony and elected John Winthrop a lawyer as their governor·
  65. John Winthrop
    • lawyer, very religious and was elected as governor of the
    • Massachusetts Bay Colony·
  66. Roger Williams
    a puritan minister, believed the Puritans had no right to take land by force from the Indians,because of these beliefs he was banned from the Massachusetts Bay Colony, hefounded Rhode Island an purchased it from the Indians, he established religiousfreedom and separation of church and state·
  67. Rhode Island
    founded by Roger Williams was purchased from the Indians, all male members of the colony could vote,there was religious freedom and separation of church and state.
  68. Anne Hutchinson
    Actively expressed religious ideas different from puritan views, she followed Rodger Williams to Rhode Island, later she moved to New Netherlands and was killed in an Indian attack.


  69. Salem Witch Trials
    New England colonists tried, convicted and executed people for being witches In Salem Massachusetts·
  70. Pequot war
    • The puritans in Connecticut at first traded with the
    • pequots, the Puritans accused the Pequots of killing an English trader, the pequots denied this and the war broke out, it was one of the bloodiest massacres in the United States history·
  71. Treaty of Hartford
    The pequots were defeated, the treaty gave the English all Pequot lands, it made it so that the Pequots no longer existed·
  72. King Phillip’s war
    • Tensions between the Indians and puritans erupted into this war, it was named after a chief named Metacom “King Phillip” who plotted the rebellion , war broke out and Indians who supported the puritans killed Metacom, now New England colonists vastly outnumbered the
    • Indians·
  73. Fort Orange and New Amsterdam
    The Dutch sent ships across the Atlantic to the Hudson to trade fur with the Indians, they founded a permenant settlement at Fort Orange (Albany), They built Amsterdam at the tip of Manhattan island, New Amsterdam ( Now New YorkCity)·
  74. Push factor
    motivate people to leave their home countries·
  75. Pull factor
    attract people to a new location·
  76. William Penn
    • a wealthy Quaker who wanted peace with the Indians, he
    • bought Pennsylvania from the Indians, gave Pennsylvania political and religious freedom and made the capital Philadelphia·
  77. Quakers
    considered women equal to men,they were pacifists, they sought an inner light to understand the bible and they tolerated other faiths.
  78. Irish immigration
    became the largest immigrant group, motivated by poverty and easy legal access as part of Britain, they worked as merchants in the tobacco trade and farmed from Pennsylvania to the Carolinas


  79. German immigration
    became the second largest immigrant group, were motivated by war, taxes and religious persecution, they mostly settled in Pennsylvania and farmed, land was cheap it was 6 times larger·
  80. Indentured servants
    poor immigrants who paid their passage to the colonies by agreeing to work 4 to 7 years·
  81. The beginnings of slave labor
    Africans were taken by force from West African countries to the colonies, colonists used African slaves as a source of labor,slaves were almost treated as indentured servants and then slavery became permanent. Farmers needed a work force to grow crops, Virginia passed a lawdecreeing that any servant not a Christian was to be enslaved, Traders began purchasing slaves from African merchants.
  82. Triangular Trade
    • The trade of goods and slaves was well
    • established, manufactured goods were traded for captured Africans, Slave traders carried Africans to the colonies in the middle passage, Enslaved Africans were sold to colonists for raw materials·
  83. Middle Passage
    The forced transport of enslaved Africans from West Africa to the Americans
  84. Slaves life
    Slaves worked 12 hours a day 6 days a week, in fields growing crops, they were given limited clothing, food, and lived in huts on plantations, they were supervised by overseers who often whipped those who resisted. They worked as farmhands, sailors, dock workers and house servants·
  85. African reactions to slavery
    some slaves rebelled, it was common to run away·
  86. Magna Carta
    English nobles made King John accept a limitation to his taxation and guaranteed the right to a trial
  87. Parliament

    2 house legislature, composed of the House of Lords, an inherited position, and the House of Commons, elected by men with property
  88. Glorious Revolution
    The English overthrew King James II and installed William and Mary who granted the English bill of rights


  89. Habeus Corpus
    No one can be held in prison without being charged with a specific crime·
  90. English Bill of Rights
    • a document guaranteeing a number of freedoms and
    • restating many of the rights in the Magna Carta
  91. How did massachussets form?
    Massachusetts Bay Colony and Plymouth merged to form Massachusetts·
  92. Salutary neglect
    • British policy which allowed the colonies virtual self
    • rule as long as Great Britain was gaining economically
  93. Navigation Acts
    Parliament enacted a series of trade laws, Goods imported to England could be transported only in English ships, The colonies could export sugar, tobacco, cotton and indigo only to England, All foreign goods shipped to the colonies had to pass through English ports.
  94. Mercantilism
    economic policy under which a nation accumulated wealth by exporting more goods than it imports·
  95. The Enlightenment
    Enlightenment thinkers began to build off the Scientific revolution and use scientific reasoning to apply to government and politics·
  96. John Locke
    believed that people had natural rights that came from god and not from monarchs·
  97. The Great Awakening
    a religious movement that centered on preachers traveling through the colonies to preached powerful emotion packed sermons, many people left their old established churches, joined the movement and started new churches, they realized if they can select their own religion, they can also select their own government
  98. New England colonial differences
    • Cold winters, short growing season, rugged landscape, strict religious values, small towns and cities, community life, fishing, lumber harvesting, and
    • small scale farming, few African Americans, more families, more economic equality and 6 males for every 4 females.
  99. Middle Colonies colonial differences
    Temperate climate, longer growing season, landscape of fields and valleys, religiously and ethnically very diverse, small towns and cities,community life “bread basket”, preferred by most Europeans.
  100. Southern Colonies colonial differences
    Warm climate, long growing season, landscape with broad fields andvalleys, few small towns and large cities due to large plantation culture,tobacco, rice and indigo, Enslaved African Americans were majorty of the population, little economic equality, and 4 men for every women.
  101. Colonial schooling
    to ensure that every one could read the bible, schools were required in all New England towns, outside of New England education was less, many homeschooled and wealthy people hired tutors or sent their children to England·
  102. Dame schools
    for girls and operated out of womans home·
  103. Reasons for the French and Indian war
    the French and British began to fight over the Ohio river valley and the great lakes area, the French needed it to connect their territory in Canada along with Mississippi.
  104. The French and Indian war
    Developed into a seven year war, Indians fought alongside the French, At first French were winning, but then British interrupted the shipment of French supplies and started winning battles, Indians left the French to fight on the British side


  105. George washington
    led a battle against the French·
  106. Rogers Rangers
    groups of colonial militiamen helped the British fight the French by serving as scouts and soldiers·
  107. Treaty of Paris
    the treaty ended the war andgreatly increased British territory in North America·
  108. Pontiacs Rebellion
    The British winning the war was not good for the Indians, British stopped supplies to the Indians, British settlers moved into Indian lands. The Indians attacked British forts and the new British settlement, they tried to weaken the British in any way they could in order to lure the French back. The rebellion resulted in the Proclamation Line·
  109. The Proclamation line of 1763
    When the British agreed colonial settlers would remain east of the Appalachian mountains.
  110. Tensions arise
    Tensions arise between the British and colonists after the French and Indian war·
  111. Albany Plan of Union
    Ben Franklin drafted the plan, it was to unite the colonies under British rule, unite the colonies in fighting wars foreign and abroad, and create a continental assembly with delegates from each colony. Both the colonists and the British rejected the plan.
  112. British model of government
    • Due process of law, freedom of the press, trial by jury,
    • protection from foreign attack , branches, wealth and birth determined power and status, not very democratic, no formal charter outlining citizens rights, only a quarter of males could make vote and parliament claimed virtual representation allowing it to make law for all British subjects


  113. Colonistsmodel of Government
    quite democratic, had charters to outline their rights,most males could vote for their assemblies, but none could vote for members of parliament, assemblies controlled governors by withholding their salaries if displeased
  114. Colonial protests
    argued that government is a social contract with citizens, if colonists didn’t consent to the way they were being treated by the British no government existed, non importation agreements, Rebels tarred and feathered taxcollectors, mobs destroyed governors home and assaulted royal officials, sons of liberty·
  115. What did the colonists say to being taxed?
    “no taxation without representation!”·
  116. Non importation agreements
    called for a boycott of goods from Britain·
  117. SugarAct
    1764 assigned customs officers and special courts to collect taxes and prosecute smugglers·
  118. Quartering Act
    • 1765 required colonists to provide housing and supplies
    • for British soldiers·
  119. Stamp Act
    1765 taxed printed materials, such as newspapers, books and contracts, 1st direct tax in the colonies
  120. The Townshend Acts
    1767 with the need for money, Parliament replaced the stamp act with this and taxed glass, lead, paper, paint and tea


  121. Boston Massacre
    1770 colonists hurled snowballs and rocks at British soldiers, the soldiers fired and killed 5 colonists. As a result Adams organized committees of correspondence and the British repealed the Townshend acts but kept the tax on tea·
  122. Committees of correspondence
    Adams organized the committee after the Boston Massacre
  123. Boston Tea Party
    to anger the British, the colonists drank smuggled tea, this caused money problems for the British East India Company, Parliament passed a law allowing the company to sell directly to the colonists. Tea was now cheaper than smuggled tea even with tax, the colonists felt tricked and 3 Patriots dressed as Indians and dumped tea into the harbor·
  124. Coercive/Intolerable Acts
    Parliament was outraged from the Boston tea party and passed the Coercive acts to punish Boston, colonists called it the Intolerable acts. It closed the port to trade until the destroyed tea was paid for, increased powers of the royal governor, allowed British officials to be tried in Britain instead of thecolonies, and sent war ships to Boston
  125. First Continental Congress
    Delegates from every colony except Georgia met in Philly, they thought to boycott all British imports
  126. John Adams
    thought Americans could unite to defeat the British


  127. Minutemen
    militias, began to organize·
  128. John Hancock and Sam Adams
    organized a provincial congress to run Massachusetts·
  129. Battles of Lexington and Concord
    The revolution begins, Recoats march towards Concord to seize weapons and ammunition, In Lexington they meet colonial militia, the redcoats killed 8 minutemen, marching on to Concord the British meet hundreds of armed Patriots (tipped off by Paul Revere). As the Redcoats marched back to Boston Patriots killed 200 of them·
  130. The second continental congress
    met in Philly to take control of the fighting, chose George Washington as commander of the Continental Army, some members wanted to be independent from Britain, many wanted to remain in Britain but not pay taxes. The congress made an attempt at reconciliation with the British, the Olive Branch, which was rejected by the British·
  131. George Washington
    chosen as the commander of the Continental Army·
  132. Olive Branch Petition
    The second continental congress sent it to Britain, reaffirming allegiance to the king but not Parliament, it was rejected and in response Britain sent more troops
  133. Loyalists
    preferred British rule
  134. Patriots
    Those who opposed the British taxes·
  135. Britain advantages in war
    well organized, long established government, produced many ships and weapons, troops were well trained and supplied, and they have fought many wars·
  136. Colonists disadvantages in war
    • continental congress just starting, the continental congress
    • had no money or authority to tax, continental soldiers were cold, hungry, and poorly equipped
  137. General Howe
    British commander at Bunker Hill, to show British invincibility he ordered a frontal assault, the Redcoats took the hill, Howe wanted his troops to win despite giving the Patriots an advantage, they won but suffered heavy casualties
  138. Howe’s Strategy
    to defeat the continental army on the battlefield, capture the seaports to block trade, and capture the capital, all was achieved but the British still lost the war
  139. Thomas Paine
    • wrote Common sense, to swing popular opinion to favor
    • independence·
  140. Common Sense
    written by Thomas Paine, it was a source of inspiration, depicted the king as an enemy of liberty, said the government should be elected by the common people, reinforced the idea that all men have natural rights·
  141. Natural rights
    • men are born with rights that cannot be taken away by
    • the government·
  142. Thomas Jefferson
    was chosen to write the Declaration of Independence·
  143. Declaration of Independence
    congress approved it on July, 4th 1776, it stated all men are equal, it reaffirmed the idea of natural rights, “Giant break upletter”, Organized into 4 sections.
  144. 4 sections of the Declaration of Independence
    the preamble- stated the reasons for writing the declaration, the second paragraph stated the purpose of government then a long list of grievances by the king, and the final paragraph actually declaring independence
  145. Hessians
    German soldiers who fought for hire·
  146. Battle of Bunker Hill
    The British did not take the colonists seriously, the British took uphill, British won but many men were killed, it was led by General Howe for the British·
  147. Battle of Trenton
    • The British under Howe captured New York City,
    • Washington was forced to retreat across New Jersey, Washington counter attacked a suprise Christmas night raid on the Hessians in Trenton·
  148. Battle of Princeton-
    At Princeton Washington had another victory against General Cornwallis
  149. Valley Forge
    Washington’s troops spent the winter here , there was disease, hunger, and a third of the men had no shoes or coats. Baron Von Steuben, a German volunteered to train the men.


  150. General Cornwallis
    general for the British, surrendered at Yorktown.
  151. Battle of Saratoga
    • General John Burgoyne led the British army to invade
    • New York’s Hudson Valley, at Saratoga the British fell in a Patriot trap and Burgoyne surrendered. This victory suggested that America might just win the war.
  152. Yorktown
    Cornwallis was trapped on a Northern Virginia Peninsula and surrendered his 8,000 men army to Lafayette and Washington·
  153. October 19th 1781
    • The date that Cornwallis surrendered the British
    • army·
  154. Treaty of Paris
    After the surrender at Yorktown, it recognized American Independence, and granted generous boundaries to the United States·
  155. European assistance
    After the victoryat Saratoga, France recognized American Independence and entered the war as an Allie to the Americans·
  156. Lafayette
    a French volunteer who became a patriot general·
  157. Native Americans and the war
    • Settlers moving west of the Appalachians led to conflicts with the Indians, Indians sided with the British and
    • attacked colonists, Colonists burned 40 Iroquois villages to break the power ·
  158. Manumission
    the act of freeing someone from slavery.
  159. Republic
    governments in which the people elect their representatives , patriots disagreed over the republic especially over how much power to give the common people·
  160. Democratic Patriots
    • wanted more power for the common people, preferred a
    • unicameral legislature, and a large house of representatives with small districts so that the people had more control, and weak state governments with most of their power in the elective legislature·
  161. Conservative Patriots
    feared giving power to the common people,wanted a governor with broad powers, a bicameral legislature, an upper house senate made up of wealthy well educated gentlemen who would balance a lowerhouse elected by the common people·
  162. Unicameral
    one house legislature·
  163. Bicameral legislature
    two house legislature
  164. Articles of Confederation
    The first national constitution, created a loose league of states, the 2nd continental congress wrote the articles under John Dickinson, government power was limited, there were more weaknesses then strengths, the congress tried to amend the articles but it seemed impossible and all states got rid of the articles
  165. Alexander Hamilton
    a conservative, feared too much democracy, favored a balance of aristocracy, monarchy and republicanism, and advocated a powerful centralized government


  166. James Madison
    Favored a large republic with diverse interests to preserve the common good, favored a system where different interests would check each others powers to ensure liberty, and was called the Father of the Constitution ·
  167. The Virginia Plan
    • A strong federal government with power to tax regulate
    • commerce and veto state laws, A senate and house of Representatives both based on population, A strong president to command the military and manage foreign relations·

  168. Who proposed the Virginia Plan?
    James Madison proposed the plan.
  169. New Jersey Plan
    An executive by committee rather than one leader, a unicameral legislature, with one vote per state regardless of population, and states retain sovereignty except for a few powers granted to the Federal government·
  170. Who proposed the New Jersey Plan?
    William Patterson proposed the Plan·
  171. The Great Compromise
    • two houses in congress, the House of Representatives was based on a states population, the senate had 2
    • representatives for each state regardless the population, and power was divided between the federal government and the states·
  172. Who proposed the Great Compromise?
    Roger Sherman proposed the Plan.
  173. Federalism
    • political system in which power is shared between the
    • national government and state governments ·
  174. The three-fifths compromise
    The Northern states had more free people then the South did, so slaves were counted as three fifths of a person to be added to a states population in the House of representatives·
  175. Ratification of the Constitution
    all but three states signed the constitution·
  176. The federalists
    favored the constitution, ·
  177. Antifederalists
    Opposed the Constitution·
  178. The Bill of rights
    The first 10 amendments of the Constitution, guaranteed freedom, created by James Madison·
  179. Principles of the Constitution
    Popular sovereignty, Limited Government, Seperation of powers, Federalism, Checks and Balances and Representative government·
  180. Northwest Territory
    Settlers began to move westward, and congress was scared that they may try to leave the union or turn to other European nations, the newly formed congress could not afford to fight a war over these lands·
  181. The Northwest Ordinance
    set up a system to govern territories, it barred slavery, required a republic constitution, ignored the rights of Native Americans, resulted in 5 new states, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin ·
  182. What country did Christopher Colombus sail for?
    Spain
  183. This Nation was the first to explore Africa, and become a part of the slave trade
    Portugal
  184. The first enduring colonial town in the US is?
    St. Augustine
  185. Why were the Articles of Confederation so weak?
    The federal gov’t did not have the power to tax or regulate commerce.
  186. Members of the Sons of Liberty were called what? Who was the leader?
    Patriots and Sam Adams

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