ACID and BASE Review

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ACID and BASE Review
2012-01-19 19:21:47

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  1. Identify whether a chemical is an acid or a base by its formula or name.
    • Organic Acid: -COOH
    • Inorganic acid: H - non metal
    • Acid names have 'acid' on it
    • Organic Base: NH's
    • Inorganic Base: metal - OH
    • Base names have hydroxide or amine
  2. How do you name bases?
    ex. NaOH
    • general: metal hydroxide
    • ex. sodium hydroxide
  3. How do you name acid with one type of nonmetal?
    ex. H2S
    • General: hydro(non-metal)ic acid
    • ex. hydrosulfuric acid
  4. what happens to acids name w/ polyatomic ions when its ending with "ate"?
    what about "ites"?
    • "ate": -ic
    • "ite": - ous
  5. What happens to the ending if it the ion has one less oxygen? two less oxygen? one more oxygen?
    • one less oxygen: ending with -ite
    • two less oxygens: hypo - - ite
    • one more oxygen: per- -ate
  6. Explain Arrhenius acid and base?
    • Arrhenius acid: breaks apart, produces proton H+, they are also always BL acids
    • Arrhenius base: breaks apart, produces OH-
  7. Distinguish between Bronstead Lowry acid and base?
    • BL acid: donates a p+
    • BL base: accepts a p+
  8. Explain what lewis acid and base are?
    • Lewis acid: accepts a pair of e- (has empty orbita)
    • Lewis base: donates a pair of e- (extra e- pair)
  9. What are amphotheric substances and how do you recognize them?
    • substance that can accept or donate protons
    • has both H+ and -ve charge
  10. how do you recognize which is conjugate acid and conjugate base?
    • acids always donates
    • acids becomes conjugate base
    • H3O+ is always a conjugate acid
    • OH- is always a conjugate base
  11. Define the terms storng and weak in terms of acids and bases.
    • strong acids and bases: dissociate completly into ions in water, haigh affinity for water and have no reverse therefore no equilibrium
    • Weak acids and bases: do not dissociate completely, low affinity fo water, reverse reaction an therefore equilibrium, dissociate less than 5%
  12. How do you identify strong or weak acids and bases by thier formulas?
    • strong acid: H(halogen) except for HF, O-H = 2 or greater
    • weak acid: O-H =less than 2, all organic acid
    • strong base: bases that include metals from group 1 or group 2 - except berylium
    • weak bases- alss organic bases, transition metals
  13. Write balances acid and base dissociation equation.
    • acids: always add water
    • base: if arrhenius, then no H20
    • if BL, then add water
    • weak acids and bases have an equilibrium arrow