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Identify whether a chemical is an acid or a base by its formula or name.
- Organic Acid: -COOH
- Inorganic acid: H - non metal
- Acid names have 'acid' on it
- Organic Base: NH's
- Inorganic Base: metal - OH
- Base names have hydroxide or amine
How do you name bases?
- general: metal hydroxide
- ex. sodium hydroxide
How do you name acid with one type of nonmetal?
- General: hydro(non-metal)ic acid
- ex. hydrosulfuric acid
what happens to acids name w/ polyatomic ions when its ending with "ate"?
what about "ites"?
What happens to the ending if it the ion has one less oxygen? two less oxygen? one more oxygen?
- one less oxygen: ending with -ite
- two less oxygens: hypo - - ite
- one more oxygen: per- -ate
Explain Arrhenius acid and base?
- Arrhenius acid: breaks apart, produces proton H+, they are also always BL acids
- Arrhenius base: breaks apart, produces OH-
Distinguish between Bronstead Lowry acid and base?
- BL acid: donates a p+
- BL base: accepts a p+
Explain what lewis acid and base are?
- Lewis acid: accepts a pair of e- (has empty orbita)
- Lewis base: donates a pair of e- (extra e- pair)
What are amphotheric substances and how do you recognize them?
- substance that can accept or donate protons
- has both H+ and -ve charge
how do you recognize which is conjugate acid and conjugate base?
- acids always donates
- acids becomes conjugate base
- H3O+ is always a conjugate acid
- OH- is always a conjugate base
Define the terms storng and weak in terms of acids and bases.
- strong acids and bases: dissociate completly into ions in water, haigh affinity for water and have no reverse therefore no equilibrium
- Weak acids and bases: do not dissociate completely, low affinity fo water, reverse reaction an therefore equilibrium, dissociate less than 5%
How do you identify strong or weak acids and bases by thier formulas?
- strong acid: H(halogen) except for HF, O-H = 2 or greater
- weak acid: O-H =less than 2, all organic acid
- strong base: bases that include metals from group 1 or group 2 - except berylium
- weak bases- alss organic bases, transition metals
Write balances acid and base dissociation equation.
- acids: always add water
- base: if arrhenius, then no H20
- if BL, then add water
- weak acids and bases have an equilibrium arrow