EC chapter 5
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What would be a good definition of a learning disability?
some who displays unexpected underachievement
What precent of all students have a learning disability and what does that mean?
- it's the largest category of disability
What are some characteristics of someone with a learning disability?
- poor social skills
- not able to make connections between subjects
- trouble with readin gand writing
- hard time expressing themselves orally
What are some theories for the cause of learning disabilities?
- genetically linked
- syndromes that are associated with it
What are two different types of learning disabilities?
- reading/learning disabilities
- mathematics/learning disabilities
What is another disability that sometimes occurs with LD?
What is a warning sign for LD?
a child is not developing precursors to reading such as knowing the alphabet
What does RIT stand for?
response to intervention
What is the main method of assessment for people with LD that normally is taken in kindergarten?
the gap between achievement and IQ?
What are a few home helps for someone with LD?
- become a good listener
- offer new solutions
- keep the focus on your child
What are some school helps for a child with LD?
- clear instruction
- assign homework that is appropriate to their skill level
- coordinate with teachers
What is one "fad" that was used as a "cure" for LD?
a special diet
what has been found to be the most effective approach to treating LD?
directly teaching academic skills
Are students with LD homogenous or heterogenous in their academic strengths and weaknessess?
What is one main indicator that some has LD not just low motivation?
students with LD are resistant to treatment
after repeated failure, a person becomes less willing to take risks and less confident that their actions can result in success
give an example of how a student with LD could be nonstrategic in their problem solving?
not following the sequence of a work problem in math
multi-tiered pre-referral method of increasingly intensive interventions used to identify LD early
Response to Intervention
What does F.A.T. stand for in F.A.T. city?
students without disabilities whose academic performance is below that of their class?
What are two characteristics of reading that are incredibly difficult for students with LD to grasp?
- reading fluency
- reading proficiency
How many students receiving special education services are labeled as LD?
over half of them
What is the most common reason students are referred to special education for LD?
why can a reading/learning disability be so pervasive?
because reading is the backbone to any education
what percent of students with learning disabilities have math disabilities as well?
What do students with a math disability have main problems with?
- retrieving information from their long term memory
- solving multi-step problems
what have come to be known as the defining characteristics of LD?
- unexpected underachievement
- resistant to treatment
self-explanations about the reasons for one's success or failure
What are 4 different tactics that help students with LD be more strategic in their learning?
What is one key reason why students with LD struggle socially?
poor language skills
what are the three issues surrounding the prevalence of learning issues that concern people?
What is the standard procedure for determining LD?
What are discrepancy formulas?
taking the IQ score of an individual and comparing it to a standardized achievement test to see if their is a significant deficit
What are a few benefits to using RTI?
- no stigma cause everyone goes through the process
- low achievement is distinguished from learning disabilities
- reduces inappropriate referrals
a system of progress monitoring; evaluates performance frequently by collecting data directly on mastery of academic subjects being taught
curriculum based measurement
what three early skills are necessary for success in reading later?
- phonological awareness
- rapid naming of alphabetic sounds and letters
- beginning phonics
identifying, seperating, or manipulating sound units of spoken language
the sounds represented by letters and letter-groups
instructional methods to help students read, comprehend, and study better by helping them organize and collect information strategically
learning strategies curriculum
What does RAP mean?
- read the paragraph
- ask your the main idea and details in the paragraph
- put the main idea and details in your own words
memory aids that help people remember items that go together?
RAP is an example of what?
being able to explain what accommodations help improve performance and to ask for them
stratedies that help them be independent, such as setting goals
When a student has only a math disability?
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