# MCAT Gen Chem 2

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1. Thermodynamic
Whether or not a process or reaction can occur.
2. Kinetic
How fast or slow a process or rection can occur.
3. Exothermic energy coordinate diagram
4. Endothermic energy coordinate diagram
5. Convection
Fluid movement caused by the hotter portions of a fluid rising and the cooler portions of a fluid sinking.
• Electromagnetic waves emitted from a hot body into the surrounding environment.
• Light colors radiate and absorb less
• Dark colors radiate and absorb more
7. Conduction
• Molecular collisions along a conduit
• Analogous to current flow through a wire or H2O through a pipe
8. Heat Capacity (definition)
The amount of energy (in Joules or Calories) a system can absorb per temperature unit (J/K or cal/˚C).
9. Heat Capacity (formula)
C = q/∆T
10. Specific Heat Capacity (definition)
Is for a given substance only and is defined as the heat capacity per unit mass.
11. Specific Heat Capacity (formula)
q = mc∆T
12. Specific Heat of Water
• 1.0 cal/g˚C
• or
• 4.18 J/g˚C
13. First Law of Thermodynamics
• ∆E = q + w
• Work done on the system (+)
• Work done by the system (–)
14. Second Law of Thermodynamics
• Heat cannot be changed completely into work in a cyclical process
• Entropy in an isolated system can never decrease
15. Third Law of Thermodynamics
Pure substances at absolute zero have an entropy of zero
16. Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
Temperature exists
17. Celsius – Kelvin conversion
• 0˚ C = 273.15 K
• -273.15˚ C = 0 K
• Absolute zero = 0 K
18. Kinetic Energy of Gasses (formula)
• KE = 3/2kT
• k = Boltzman's constant (1.3806503 e 23 m2 kg s-2 K-1)
19. Enthalpy
• (∆H)
• The energy contained within chemical bonds or HEAT
20. Entropy
• (∆S)
• A measure of the randomness or disorder in a system
21. Standard State
• Standard State is 25˚ C (298K) and ∆H = 0
• *For thermodynamics problems
22. STP
• STP (standard temperature and pressure) is 0˚ Celsius (273K) and 1 atm
• *For gas problems
23. + ∆S =
Increased randomness, energy released and available to do work
24. – ∆S =
Decreased randomness, energy is required to "create" increased order and that energy is thus unavailable to do work
25. Entropy (∆S) increases with: (5 things)
• 1. Increased number of items/particles/etc. (Gas trumps # of moles or particles. This means that if two moles of reactants makes one mole of product and that product is a gas, it is still +∆S)
• 2. Increased volume
• 3. Increased temperature
• 4. Increased disorder
• 5. Decreased pressure (the higher the pressure the more packing and order of molecules)
26. Gibbs Free Energy (∆G)
∆G = the amount of "free" or "useful" energy available to do work.

• -∆G = Spontaneous; exothermic
• +∆G = Non-spontaneous; endothermic
27. Rate Order Graphs
• 0 order: [A] vs. time is linear with slope -k
• 1st order: ln[A] vs. time is linear with slope -k
• 2nd order: 1/[A] vs. time is linear with slope k
• 3rd order: 1/2[A]2 vs. time is linear with slope k
28. Fundamental Thermodynamic Relation formula
∆G = ∆H - T∆S

• ∆G - Gibbs
• ∆H - Enthalpy
• ∆S - Entropy
• T - Temp K
29. Entropy signs
• (+) means more disorder or increased entropy.
• (–) means more order or decreased entropy.

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 Author: Maki6tu ID: 129150 Filename: MCAT Gen Chem 2 Updated: 2012-08-02 19:29:40 Tags: Chem Folders: Description: Chem 2 Show Answers:

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