Chapter 1

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fridaykj
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129209
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Chapter 1
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2012-01-20 14:49:32
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psych chapter 1
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  1. Development is the pattern of change that begins...
    • at conception and continues through the human life span
    • includes growth and decline
  2. Sudying helps us prepare for what 3 things?
    • Prepares us for children
    • gives us insight into ourselves
    • gives us knowledge about life as we age
  3. What are the 8 concepts of life span perspective
    L, MDir, MDim, MDisc, P,C, Gmr, bio, socio, ind.

    • lifelong
    • multidirectional
    • multidimentional
    • multidisciplinary
    • plastic
    • contextual
    • growth, maintenance, and regulation
    • biological socio cultural and individual factors
  4. 3 important sources of contextual influences are:
    • normative age-graded influences
    • normative history graded influences
    • nonnormative life events
  5. Name some contemporary concerns
    • HPESDS
    • health and well being
    • parenting
    • education
    • sociocultural contexts
    • diversity
    • social policy
  6. Dimensions of sociocultural context include (5)
    • CESGA
    • culture
    • ethnicity
    • socioeconomic status
    • gender
    • age social policy
  7. Three key developmental processes that influence development are an interplay of:
    • BCS
    • biological cognitive and socioemotional
  8. Lifespan is divided into 9 "ages"
    • Prenatal
    • infancy
    • early childhood
    • middle and late childhood
    • adolescence,
    • emerging adulthood
    • early adulthood,
    • middle adulthood
    • late adulthood (young, old and oldest)
  9. Age can be thought of in terms of these 4 "ages"
    • chronologica
    • biological
    • psychological
    • social
  10. Stability-change focuses on whether we become
    different people or just older versions of our early experience
  11. Stability-change also asks whether which is more important
    early or later experiences
  12. Developmentalists describe development as:
    • continuous
    • gradual
    • cumulative change
    • OR
    • discontinuous
    • abrupt
    • a sequence of stages
  13. Developmentalists recognize that extreme positions on nature-nurture, stability-change, and continuity-discontinuity are:
    unwise
  14. Scientific method 4 main steps
    • conceptualize problem
    • collect data
    • analyze data
    • draw conclusions
  15. According to psychoanalytic theories development:
    primarily depends on the unconcious mind and is heavily couched in emotion
  16. Freud had ____ stages
    5 psychosexual
  17. Erikson had ____ stages
    8 psychosocial
  18. Erikson's stages
    • truts-mistrust
    • autonomy=shame and doubt
    • initiative-guilt
    • industry-inferiority
    • identity- identity confulsion
    • intimacy-isolation
    • generativity-stagnation

    integrity-despair
  19. psychoanalytical contributions include
    • developmental framework
    • family relationships
    • uncouscious aspect of the mind
  20. Criticism of psychoanalytical are
    • lack of scientific support
    • too much emphasis on sexual underpinnings
    • image of people as too negative
  21. Three main cognitive theories
    • Piaget
    • vygotsky
    • information processing
  22. Piaget's theory children go through ___ stages which are
    • sensorimotor
    • preoperational
    • concrete operational
    • formal operation
  23. Bygotsky's sociocultural cognitive theory emphasizes how
    culture and social interaction guide cognitive development
  24. the information processing appraoch emphasizes that
    • individuals manipulate information,
    • monitor it
    • and strategize about it
  25. Contributions of cognitive theories include an emphasis on
    the active construction of understanding and developmental changes in thinking
  26. Criticisms of cognitive theories include
    giving too little attention to individual variations and underrating the unconscious aspects of thought
  27. Two main behavioral and social cognitive theories are
    • Skinners operant conditioning
    • social cognitive theory
  28. In Skinners operant conditioning the consequences of beharior produce
    changes in the probability of the behaviors' future occurrance
  29. In social cognitive theory _____ learning
    observational learnting is esential to life span development
  30. Bandura emphasizes the interplay among what 3 factore?
    • person/cognition
    • behavior
    • environment
  31. Contributions of behavioral and social cognitive theories include
    • emphasis on scientific research
    • focus on evironment
    • recognition of importance of person and cognitive factors
  32. Criticism of behavioral and social cognitive theories includes
    • inadequate attention to developmental changes
    • too much emphasis on environment
    • in Skinner's behaviorism too little attention to cognition
  33. Ethology stresses that behavior is influenced strongly by
    • biology
    • tied to evolution
    • characterized by critical or sensitive periods
  34. Contributions of ethological theory include it's focus on
    biological and evolutionary basis of development
  35. Criticisms of ethological theory
    inflexibility in concepts of critical and sensitive periods
  36. Ecological theory emphasized
    environmental contexts
  37. Bronfenbrenner's environmental systems view proposes 5 environmental systers
    • micro
    • meso
    • exo
    • macro
    • chrono
  38. Contributions of Bronfenbrenner's environmental systems view
    • systemic exam of macro and microdimensions of environmental systems
    • consideration of sociohistorical influences
  39. Criticisms of Bronfenbrenner's environmental systems view are
    • inadequate attention to biological factors
    • lack of emphasis on cognitive
  40. Methods for collecting data about life span development are:
    • observation (lab or natural)
    • survey or interview
    • standardized test
    • case study
    • physiological measures
  41. 3 main research designs are
    • descriptive
    • correlational
    • experimental
  42. Descriptive research aims to
    observe and record behavior
  43. The goal of correlational research is
    to describe the strength of the relationship between 2 or more events or characteristics
  44. Experimental research involves
    conducting and experiment which can determine cause and effect
  45. 2 types of research are
    • cross section
    • longitudinal
  46. Researchers' ethical responsibilities include
    • informed consent
    • confidentiality
    • telling purpose and potential personal consequences
    • avoiding unnecessary deception
  47. Researchers need to guard against these biases
    • gender
    • cultural
    • ethnic

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