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Theory of mind
- Ability to understand that one's self and other people have mental states (e.g. thoughts, beliefs, wishes) about the world that may differ from others.
- -To realize "others may realize what I know'
The "Maxi TASK"
- -formalized the idea of schemas/assim/ accom/ obj permanence
- -view children as different qualitatively rather than just different in degrees
- -Introduced idea that children are active, constructive thinkers
- -his sequence of stages is generally correct
- -overemphazied descrete stages
- -many of his skills were language-dependent
- -might have underestimated children
- -...and overestimated adolescents/ adults
- -failed to appreciate individ & cultural diffs
- -interested in cultural/ social influences on learning
- -believed change more gradual
- -what could the child do if given a little help or guidance, that the child could NOT do without help?
- -zone of proximal development (period where children might not yet be good at a skill , but will benefit from instruction in it.
- -scaffolding (the initial assistance/ structure for a children's learning (usually from parents0 ))
- -Close emotional bond between infants & caregivers
- -contact comfort (e.g. Harlow's monkeys, Humans & contact comfort (hugs))
Attachment types (Ainsworth's research (strange situation test))
- -explore environement & play w/ mom around
- -upset when mom leaves
- -but is happy & seeks her when she retursn & can be comforted
- -May be clingy w/ mom.
- -Anxious when mom leaves.
- -seems angry when mom returns, and even squirm or try to get away when picked up.
- -seem aloof when moms around
- -doesn't seem to mind when mom leaves
- -may avoid mom when she returns
- -disorganized (~5%)
- -may react in any way, and not necessarily consistent
Baumrind's parenting style
Authoriatarian, authoritative, neglectful, indulgent
Parents restrict and punish. Order not to be question. Little verbal exchange.
Common outcome in children -anxiety about social comparison, lack of initative, poor communication skills.
encourage independence within limits. extensive verbal give=and take. Warmth, nurturance
social competence, self-reliance, social responsibility
Little involvement in the child's life. Unaware of what the child is doing.
Anxiety aboutsocial comparison, lack of initative, poor communication skills.
Involved with the child but without placing demands. highly permissive.
-Anxiety about soocial comparison, lack of initiative, poor communcation skills.
Post conventional, Conventional, Pre-convnetional
- -willing to break the rules ( and suffer the consequences) if rules perceived unjust or immoral
- -personal ethics/ values
- -rules are rules and are not to be broken
- -base on need of society
- -To avoid punishment
- -based on personal needs
Pscyhosocial Development (Erikson's Theory)
- -innate biological drives to develop social relationships
- -divided into 8 stages, each with a different psychosocial problem or crisis to resovle
- -outcome of each stage varies along a continuum from pos to neg
Stage 1 (birth-1)
- -Trust v mistrust
- -infants must rely on others
- -Is my world predicatable & supportive? Are my parents ther when I need them?
Stage 2 (1-3 years)
- -Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
- -children dsicovering their own independence
- -can I do things myself? Will i always need help?
Stage 3 (3-5 years)
- -Initiative vs. guilt
- -children exposed to the wider social world and igven greater responsibility
- -can I carry out tasks? Am I good or bad?
Stage 4 (5-12 years)
- Industry vs. inferiority
- -start school. mastery of knowledge and intellectural skills.
- -am i competent or worthless?
Stage 5 (adolescence0
- -Identity vs. Confusion
- -Who am I? Struggle to define oneself?
- -Who am I? Where am i going?