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  1. monocots ( one cotyledon { seed leaf})
    • leaves w parallel veins.
    • stems reach a certain diameter n do not continue to grow.
    • stem fibers or vascular bundles r scattered, not in concentric circles.
    • no bark present.
    • floral parts arranged in 3s or multiple of 3s.

    ex. grasses, corn, wheat, onion family.
  2. dicots (two cotyledons [ seed leaf] opposite each year)
    • leaves w netted veins.
    • stems continue to grow in diameter as long as plant lives.
    • stem fibers arrange in concentric circles.
    • bark develops n can be easily stripped from the remainder of the plant.
    • floral parts varies, rarely in 3s.

    ex. trees, shrubs, many small plants.
  3. annual?
    a plant that completes its life cycle in 1 year.
  4. biennial?
    a plant that completes its life cyle in 2 years.
  5. perennial?
    a plant that lives year to year.
  6. photosynthesis?
    process by which carbon dioxide + water under the influence of chlorophyll n light produce carbohydrates.
  7. transpiration?
    the loss of water through stomates as water vapor- an evaporation process.
  8. respiration?
    • the oxidation by plants of compounds containing carbon n hydrogen to carbon dioxide n water, n releasing energy.
    • is the opposite of photosynthesis.
    • breaks down sugar, does not require light or cholorophyll n decreases dry weight.
  9. stomata?
    • small oval openings found on the lower leaf surface.
    • is surrounded by 2 kindney shaped cells called guard cells.
    • allow the exchange of oxygen n carbon dioxide between the interior of the leaf n the external atmosphere.
    • as well as the movement of water vapor from within the leaf.
  10. translocation?
    the movement of food material through a plant.
  11. phloem?
    outer layer conducting cells which transport metablolized food through the plant.
  12. xylem?
    portion nearest the center of stem containing thick-walled cells which carry water or salts( plant nutrients) through the plant.
  13. cambium?
    • thin layer of cells separating phleom from xylem.
    • is the growing portion of the plant which forms cells for both the xylem n phloem.
  14. leaf?
    • a lateral outgrowth of the stem.
    • usually green in color ( chlorophyll ).
  15. blade?
    expanded, broad portion.
  16. petiole?
    is the stalk.
  17. base?
    part that joins leaf to the stem.
  18. stipules?
    • scalelike outgrowths.
    • rarely bladelike.
    • frequently drop when leaf matures.
  19. function of the stem?
    • support for leaves, flowers n fruits.
    • transports water n minerals from roots to leaves n other plant organs.
    • conducts manufactured food from leaves to other parts of the plant.
  20. functions of the root?
    • absorbs water n minerals from the soil n translocates to the upper plant parts.
    • supports plant.
    • stores food.
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