Bio

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ashleynicole
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129254
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Bio
Updated:
2012-01-21 12:56:32
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science
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science midterm flashcards
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  1. Put the scientific method in order (7 steps)
    • 1. Identify the problem'
    • 2. Gather information
    • 3. State a hypothesis
    • 4. Design and carry out an experiment
    • 5. Make observations
    • 6. Organize and analyze data
    • 7. State conclusion
  2. What is a theory?
    A hypothesis that has been tested and supported by a great amount of evidence over a long period of time
  3. What is a law?
    A statement describing (but not explaining) a natural event or phenomenon
  4. What is a hypothesis?
    A suggested explanation to a problem or observation based upon known information
  5. What is a variable?
    Anything that can affect the results of an experiment
  6. What is an experiment?
    Used to test a hypothesis
  7. What is a control?
    A part within the experiment that is maintained without change in order to provide a comparison for the part of the experiment containing the variable
  8. What is data?
    Observations and measurements made during an experiment
  9. What is a conclusion?
    A summary that explains whether or not the data support the hypothesis
  10. What is an application?
    A new use to which results are put or new technique developed
  11. What does the nucleur membrane do?
    It holds the nucleus together and controls movement into and out of the nucleus
  12. What is the endoplasmic reticulum and what does it do?
    • It is the surface for chemical activity
    • It serves as a pathway for the transport of materials throughout the cell; also associated with synthesis and storage
  13. What are the genes?
    Units of heredity
  14. What are the lysosomes?
    Digestion center
  15. What do the ribosomes do?
    Make proteins/ the site of protein synthesis
  16. What are the centrioles do?
    Responsible for cell division
  17. What are the microtubules?
    microscopic cylinders that support and give the cell shape
  18. What does the cell wall do?
    • Shapes and supports a plant cell
    • It provides protection
  19. What do the Golgi Bodies do?
    • Store and release chemicals
    • Packages and secretes the products of the cell
  20. What do the chloroplasts do?
    • Makes food for plant cells
    • Site of photosynthesis
  21. What is the nucleolus and what does it do?
    • A spherical body within the nucleus
    • Site of production of ribosomes
  22. What does the cell membrane do?
    Controls entry into and out of the cell
  23. What does the chlorophyll do?
    Traps light and is used to produce food for plants
  24. What are found in the nucleus?
    What does the nucleus do?
    • Chromosomes are found here
    • Serves as the control center for cell metabolism and reproduction
  25. What is the cytoplasm?
    • A jelly-like substance within the cell
    • It contains many minerals involved in cell metabolism
  26. What are the chromosomes and what do they do?
    • Rod-shaped bodies that carry genetic information
    • Contains code which guides all cell activities
  27. What are the nucleur pores?
    Minute holes in the nuclear membrane
  28. What are the mitochandria?
    The "powerhouse" of the cell
  29. What is a vacuole and what does it contain?
    • Fluid filled organelles enclosed by a membrane
    • Water, stored food, and dissolved minerals
  30. What is does plastid do?
    Stores food or contains pigment
  31. What is a hypotonic solution?
    When there is more salt inside the cell so water goes into it
  32. What is an isototonic solution?
    When there is an even amount of water and salt
  33. What is a hypertonic solution?
    When there is more water outside of the cell so the water goes out of the cell
  34. What is photosynthesis?
    The process some organisms are able to use by which they convert light energy to chemical energy
  35. What is the Calvin cycle?
    The main method photosynthesizing organisms use for carbon dioxide fixation
  36. What is the Krebs Cycle?
    A set of chemical reactions that break down pyruvate, producing electron carriers for an electron transport chain that powers ATP production
  37. What is cellular respiration?
    The process cells use to produce energy from carbohydrates
  38. What is pigment?
    A substance taht absorbs some wavelengths of light and reflects otehrs, giving something its color
  39. What is chlorophyll?
    The green substance that absorbs light and provides energy for photosynthesis
  40. What is are thylakoids?
    Disc-shaped sacs in chloroplasts in which photosynthesis takes place
  41. What is the electron transport chain? (ETC)
    The series of molecules in the inner membranes of chloroplasts and mitochondria down which excited electrons pass, releasing energy for ATP production
  42. What is fermentation?
    The process by which NAD+ is recycled under anaerobic conditions in order to continue the break down of carbohydrates to supply energy for producing ATP
  43. What is ATP?
    Adenosine triphosphate, a substance that stores and releases energy for most cell processes
  44. What is aerobic?
    Describes a process that requires oxygen
  45. What is anaerobic?
    Describes a process that does not require oxygen
  46. What is glycolysis?
    The process by which glucose is broken down into pyruvate in the absence of oxygen, producing a small amount of ATP
  47. What is ATP synthase?
    The enzyme taht aids in the production of adenosine triphosphate and which also acts as a carrier protein for hydrogen ions in active transport across a membrane
  48. Abiotic vs. biotic
    • abiotic is non-living things that affect the enviornment
    • biotic is living things that affect the enviornment
  49. What are acids?
    • pH less than 7
    • ex) coca-cola, battery acid, orange juice, vinager, lemon juice
  50. What is a base?
    • pH greater than 7
    • ex) cleaner and soap
  51. What is biology?
    • The study of life or once living things
    • the study of the structure of living things and how they interact with once another
    • the study of how living things function
  52. What are the eight characteristics of life?
    • Made of one or more cells
    • displays orginazation
    • grows and develops
    • reproduces
    • responds to stimuli
    • requires energy
    • maintains homeostasis
    • adapts over time
  53. What are the levels of orginazation of the body?
    • Cell-smallest unit of life
    • Tissue- group of cells that have some structure and function
    • Organ- diffrent tissues that work together to form a function
    • System- group of organs working together
    • Organism- organ systems working together
  54. What is energy?
    Ability to do work
  55. What is homeostasis?
    Regulation of an organism's internal conditions and maintain life
  56. What does KHDBDCM stand for?
    The SI units: Kilo, Hecto, Deco, Base, Deci, Centi, Milli
  57. What is ecology?
    The study of relationships among living organisms and the interactions the organisms have with their enviornment
  58. What are the levels of orginization of the world?
    • Organism- single living thing
    • Population- several organisms of the same species sharing space at the same time
    • Community- a group of interacting organisms sharing space at the same time
    • Ecosystem- bioligical community and abiotic factors in it
    • Biome- large group of ecosystems that share the same climate and similar types of communities (tundra, artic, rainforest)
  59. What is a habitat?
    a habitat is an area where an organism lives
  60. What is a niche?
    The role or position the organism has in its enviornment (job)
  61. What is competition?
    Occurs when more than one organism uses one resource at the same time (prey, soil, sunlight)
  62. What is intraspecific vs. interspecific?
    • Intra- is competition between the SAME species
    • Inter- is competition between DIFFRENT species
  63. What is prederation?
    An individual of one species (predator) eats all or one of another species (prey)
  64. What is symbiotic relationship?
    • When two or more organisms live together
    • Mutualism- both organisms benefit
    • Commensalism- one species benefits and the other is unaffected
    • Parasitism- host is harmed and parasite benefits
  65. What are the trophic levels?
    • Producer- produces it's own food
    • Primary- usually vegetarian
    • Secondary-
    • Tertiary

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