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science midterm flashcards
Put the scientific method in order (7 steps)
1. Identify the problem'
2. Gather information
3. State a hypothesis
4. Design and carry out an experiment
5. Make observations
6. Organize and analyze data
7. State conclusion
What is a theory?
A hypothesis that has been tested and supported by a great amount of evidence over a long period of time
What is a law?
A statement describing (but not explaining) a natural event or phenomenon
What is a hypothesis?
A suggested explanation to a problem or observation based upon known information
What is a variable?
Anything that can affect the results of an experiment
What is an experiment?
Used to test a hypothesis
What is a control?
A part within the experiment that is maintained without change in order to provide a comparison for the part of the experiment containing the variable
What is data?
Observations and measurements made during an experiment
What is a conclusion?
A summary that explains whether or not the data support the hypothesis
What is an application?
A new use to which results are put or new technique developed
What does the nucleur membrane do?
It holds the nucleus together and controls movement into and out of the nucleus
What is the endoplasmic reticulum and what does it do?
It is the surface for chemical activity
It serves as a pathway for the transport of materials throughout the cell; also associated with synthesis and storage
What are the genes?
Units of heredity
What are the lysosomes?
What do the ribosomes do?
Make proteins/ the site of protein synthesis
What are the centrioles do?
Responsible for cell division
What are the microtubules?
microscopic cylinders that support and give the cell shape
What does the cell wall do?
Shapes and supports a plant cell
It provides protection
What do the Golgi Bodies do?
Store and release chemicals
Packages and secretes the products of the cell
What do the chloroplasts do?
Makes food for plant cells
Site of photosynthesis
What is the nucleolus and what does it do?
A spherical body within the nucleus
Site of production of ribosomes
What does the cell membrane do?
Controls entry into and out of the cell
What does the chlorophyll do?
Traps light and is used to produce food for plants
What are found in the nucleus?
What does the nucleus do?
Chromosomes are found here
Serves as the control center for cell metabolism and reproduction
What is the cytoplasm?
A jelly-like substance within the cell
It contains many minerals involved in cell metabolism
What are the chromosomes and what do they do?
Rod-shaped bodies that carry genetic information
Contains code which guides all cell activities
What are the nucleur pores?
Minute holes in the nuclear membrane
What are the mitochandria?
The "powerhouse" of the cell
What is a vacuole and what does it contain?
Fluid filled organelles enclosed by a membrane
Water, stored food, and dissolved minerals
What is does plastid do?
Stores food or contains pigment
What is a hypotonic solution?
When there is more salt inside the cell so water goes into it
What is an isototonic solution?
When there is an even amount of water and salt
What is a hypertonic solution?
When there is more water outside of the cell so the water goes out of the cell
What is photosynthesis?
The process some organisms are able to use by which they convert light energy to chemical energy
What is the Calvin cycle?
The main method photosynthesizing organisms use for carbon dioxide fixation
What is the Krebs Cycle?
A set of chemical reactions that break down pyruvate, producing electron carriers for an electron transport chain that powers ATP production
What is cellular respiration?
The process cells use to produce energy from carbohydrates
What is pigment?
A substance taht absorbs some wavelengths of light and reflects otehrs, giving something its color
What is chlorophyll?
The green substance that absorbs light and provides energy for photosynthesis
What is are thylakoids?
Disc-shaped sacs in chloroplasts in which photosynthesis takes place
What is the electron transport chain? (ETC)
The series of molecules in the inner membranes of chloroplasts and mitochondria down which excited electrons pass, releasing energy for ATP production
What is fermentation?
The process by which NAD
is recycled under anaerobic conditions in order to continue the break down of carbohydrates to supply energy for producing ATP
What is ATP?
Adenosine triphosphate, a substance that stores and releases energy for most cell processes
What is aerobic?
Describes a process that requires oxygen
What is anaerobic?
Describes a process that does not require oxygen
What is glycolysis?
The process by which glucose is broken down into pyruvate in the absence of oxygen, producing a small amount of ATP
What is ATP synthase?
The enzyme taht aids in the production of adenosine triphosphate and which also acts as a carrier protein for hydrogen ions in active transport across a membrane
Abiotic vs. biotic
abiotic is non-living things that affect the enviornment
biotic is living things that affect the enviornment
What are acids?
pH less than 7
ex) coca-cola, battery acid, orange juice, vinager, lemon juice
What is a base?
pH greater than 7
ex) cleaner and soap
What is biology?
The study of life or once living things
the study of the structure of living things and how they interact with once another
the study of how living things function
What are the eight characteristics of life?
Made of one or more cells
grows and develops
responds to stimuli
adapts over time
What are the levels of orginazation of the body?
-smallest unit of life
- group of cells that have some structure and function
- diffrent tissues that work together to form a function
- group of organs working together
- organ systems working together
What is energy?
Ability to do work
What is homeostasis?
Regulation of an organism's internal conditions and maintain life
What does KHDBDCM stand for?
The SI units: Kilo, Hecto, Deco, Base, Deci, Centi, Milli
What is ecology?
The study of relationships among living organisms and the interactions the organisms have with their enviornment
What are the levels of orginization of the world?
Organism- single living thing
Population- several organisms of the same species sharing space at the same time
Community- a group of interacting organisms sharing space at the same time
Ecosystem- bioligical community and abiotic factors in it
Biome- large group of ecosystems that share the same climate and similar types of communities (tundra, artic, rainforest)
What is a habitat?
a habitat is an area where an organism lives
What is a niche?
The role or position the organism has in its enviornment (job)
What is competition?
Occurs when more than one organism uses one resource at the same time (prey, soil, sunlight)
What is intraspecific vs. interspecific?
Intra- is competition between the
Inter- is competition between
What is prederation?
An individual of one species (predator) eats all or one of another species (prey)
What is symbiotic relationship?
When two or more organisms live together
- both organisms benefit
- one species benefits and the other is unaffected
- host is harmed and parasite benefits
What are the trophic levels?
Producer- produces it's own food
Primary- usually vegetarian