Med defination chapter 5.txt

Card Set Information

Med defination chapter 5.txt
2012-01-20 20:22:44
med defination

Digestive system defination
Show Answers:

  1. Absorption
    Passage of materials through the walls of the small intestine into the bloodstream
  2. Amino acids
    Small building blocks of proteins (like links in a chain), released when proteins are digested
  3. Amylase
    Enzyme secreted by the pancreas to digest starch
  4. Anus
    Terminal end or opening of the digestive tract to the outside of the body.
  5. Appendix
    Blind pouch hanging from the cecum (RLQ). It literally means hanging (pend/o) on to (ap-, which is a form of ad-).
  6. Bile
    Digestive juice made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It breaks up large fat globules.
  7. Bilirubin
    Pigment released by the liver in bile
  8. Bowel
  9. Canine teeth
    Pointed, dog-like teeth next to the incisors. Also called cuspids or eyeteeth.
  10. Cecum
    First part of the large intestine
  11. Colon
    Large intestine, consisting of the cecum; the ascending, transverse, and descending segments of the colon; and the rectum.
  12. Common bile duct
    Carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum. Aka choledochus
  13. Defecation
    Elimination of feces from the digestive tract through the anus
  14. Deglutition
  15. Dentin
    The primary material found in teeth. It is covered by the enamel in the crown and a protective layer of cementum in the root.
  16. Digestion
    Breakdown of complex foods to simpler forms.
  17. Duodenum
    First part of the small intestine.
  18. Elimination
    Act of removal of materials from the body; in the digestive system, the removal of indigestible materials as feces.
  19. Emulsification
    Physical process of breaking up large fat globules into smaller globules, thereby increasing the surface area that enzymes can use to digest the fat.
  20. Enamel
    Hard, outermost layer of a tooth
  21. Enzyme
    A chemical that speeds up a reaction between substances.
  22. Esophagus
    Tube connecting the throat to the stomach
  23. Feces
    Solid waste; stool
  24. Gallbladder
    Small sac under the liver; stores bile
  25. Glucose
    Simple sugar
  26. Glycogen
    Starch; stored in liver cells
  27. Hydrochloric acid
    Substance produced by stomach
  28. Ileum
    Third part of small intestines
  29. Insulin
    Hormone produced by endocrine cells of the pancreas.
  30. Jejunum
    Second part of the small intestine
  31. Liver
    A larger organ in RUQ of the abdomen.
  32. Lower esophageal sphincter LES
    Ring of musles between the esophagus and the stomach. Aka cardiac sphincter
  33. Mastication
  34. Molar teeth
    6th, 7th, and 8th teeth from middle on either side of dental arch
  35. Palate
    Roof of the mouth
  36. Pancreas
    Organ under stomach; produce insulin and enzymes
  37. Parotid gland
    Salivary gland within the cheek just anterior to ear
  38. Peristalsis
    Rhythmic cintractions of the tubular organs
  39. Pharynx
  40. Portal vein
    Large vein bringing blood to liver from intestines
  41. Pyloric sphincter
    Ring muscle at the end of stomach near the duodenum
  42. Pylorus
    Distal region of the stomach, opening to duodenum
  43. Rectum
    Last section of the large intestine, connecting the end of the colon and the anus
  44. Rugae
    Ridges on the hard palate and the wall stomach
  45. Saliva
    Digestive juice produced by salivary glands
  46. Salivary glands
    Parotid, sublingual, and submandibular glands
  47. Sigmoid colon
    Fourth and last, s- shaped segment of the colon, just before the rectum opening
  48. Stomach
    Muscular organ that receives food from the esophagus
  49. Triglycerides
    Fat molecules composed of three parts fatty acids and one part glycerol
  50. Uvula
    Soft tissue hanging from middle of the soft palate
  51. Villi
    Microscopic projections inthe wall of the small intestine that absorb nutrients into the bloodstream
  52. Anorexia
    Lack of appetite
  53. Ascites
    Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen
  54. Eructation
    Gas expelled from the stomach through the mouth
  55. Flatus
    Gas expelled through the anus
  56. Hematochezia
    Passage of fresh, bright red blood from the rectum
  57. Jaundice
    Yellow-orange coloration of the skin and whites of the eyes caused by high levels of billirubin in the blood
  58. Melena
    Black, tarry stools; feces containing difested blood
  59. Nausea
    Unpleasant sensation in the stomach associated with a tendency to vomit
  60. Steatorrhea
    Fat in the feces; forthy, foul- smelling fecal matter
  61. Achalasia
    Failure of the lower esophagus sphincter muscle. To relax
  62. Esophageal cancer
    Malignant tumor of the esophagus
  63. Esophageal varices
    Swollen, varicose veins at the lower end of the esophagus. Liver disease causes incresed pressure in veins near and around liver (portal hypertension)
  64. Gastric cancer
    Malignant tumor of the stomach
  65. Gastroesophageal reflux disease GERD
    Solids and fuils return to the mouth from the stomach.
  66. Inguinal hernia
    Occurs when a small loop of bowel protrudes through a weak lower abdominal muscle
  67. Peptic ulcer
    Open sore in the lining of the stomach or duodenum
  68. Anal fistula
    Abnormal tube-like passageway near anus.
  69. Colonic polyps
    Polyps (benign growths) protrude from the mucous membrane of the colon
  70. colorectal cancer
    Adenocarcinoma of the colon or rectum, or both. Arise from polyps in the colon or rectal region. Diagnosis is determined by detecting melena and by colonscopy.
  71. Crohn Disease
    Chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract (ocurring at ileum and colon). forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
  72. Diverticulosis
    abnormal outpouchings in the interstinal wall
  73. Diverticula
    pouch-like herniations through the muscular wall of the colon.
  74. diverticulitis
    when fecal matter becomes trapped in diverticula
  75. dysentery
    Painful, inflamed intestines commonly caused by bacterial infection. often occurs in the colon. Results from ingestion of food or water containing bacteria
  76. hemorrhoids
    swollen, twisted, varicose veins in the rectal region.
  77. intussusception
    telescoping of the intestines. one segment of the bowl collapses into the opening of another segment.
  78. irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
    group of fastrointestinal symptons associated with stress and tension
  79. ulcerative colitis
    chronic inflammation of the colon with presence of ulcers. Characterized by painful abdominal cramps and profuse diarrhea containing pus, blood, and mucus.

    Change Settings

  80. Cholelithiasis
    Gallstones in the gallbladder
  81. cirrhosis
    chronic degenerative disease of the liver. results of chronic alcoholism, or viral hepatitis, or other causes. the lobes of the liver become covered with fibrous tissue, hepatic cells degenerate, and is inflitrated with fat
  82. pancreatic cancer
    malignant tumor of the pancreas.
  83. Pancreatoduodenectomy
    surgical treatment to pancreatic cancer. Whipple procedure
  84. pancreatitis
    inflammation of the pancreas. digestive enzymes attach pancreatic tissue and damage the gland
  85. viral hepatitis
    inflammation of the liver caused by a virus.
  86. Hepatitis A
    Benign disorder spread by contaminated food or water and characterized by slow onset of symptoms. complete recovery is expected.
  87. Hepatitis B
    transmitted by blood transfusion, sexual contact, or contaminated needles or instrements.
  88. Hepatitis C
    transmitted by blood transfusions or needle inoculation.