inductive approach to knowledge: Observing, expirementing, confirming ideas
Rene Descantes )(1596-1650)
Discourse on the Method. First rules: "never to receive anything as a truth which he did not clearly know to be such.
Deductive reasoning: proceeding logically from one certainty to another.
a group of natural philosophers and mathematicians committed to experimentation and collaborative work
Issac Newton (1642-1727)
- Light is composed of different colors.
- Invented integral calculus and differential calculus.
- discover the law of gravity.
Enlightenment. Philosophical letters: oppose the classic culture as intolerance, ignorance.
The Spirit of Laws: 3 forms of government: republic, monarchies and depotism. The soul of a republic was virtue which allowed individual citizens to transcend their particular interests and rule in accordance with the common good. mornachy is honor which gave individuals an incentive to behave with loyalty toward their sovereign. Depotism is fear.
Crime and Punishment
The Wealth of Nations
explorer. Charted the coast of New Zealand, add New Hebrides and Hawaii to European map