A&P CHAP 1

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julianne.elizabeth
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A&P CHAP 1
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2012-01-21 17:34:30
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regions organ systems planes structural organization life functions survival needs homeostasis feedback mechanisms directional terms body cavities adominopelvic quadrants complimentarity structure function
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A&P chap 1 lecture and lab
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  1. Define Anatomy
    studies the structure of body parts and their relationship to one another
  2. Define Physiology
    concerns the function of the body, how the body parts work and carry out their life sustaining activities

    *the study of function at many levels
  3. Topics of Anatomy
    Gross/Macroscoptic Anatomy
    - the study of large body structures visible with the naked eye

    Regional Anatomy: all the strucures in one region are studied at the same time, such as the abdomen

    Systemic Anatomy: body structure is studied system by system, for example the cardiovascular system

    Surface anatomy: study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin surface. (used for a nurse to find a vein to draw blood or to take a pulse)
  4. Topics of Anatomy
    Microscopic Anatomy
    -deals with structures too small to be seen with the naked eye

    Cystology: study of cells

    Histology: study of tissues
  5. Topics of Anatomy
    Developmental Anatomy
    -traces structural changes that occur in the body throughout the life span

    Embryology: concerns developmental changes before birth
  6. Tools for studying and mastering Anatomy
    • 1. Anatomical Terminology
    • 2. Observation
    • 3. Manipulation
    • 4. Palpitation (feeling organs with your hand on a living person)
    • 5. Auscultation (listening to organ sounds with a stethoscope)
  7. Topics of Physiology
    -most subdivisions deal with the operation of specific organ systems

    Renal Physiology: concerns kidney function

    Neurophysiology: explains the workings of the nervous system

    Cardiovascual physiology: examines the operation of the heart and the blood vessels
  8. Tools for Studying and Mastering Physiology
    • 1. Ability to focus on many levels (from systemic to cellular to molecular)
    • 2. Basic physics principles
    • 3. Basic chemistry principles
  9. Complementarity of Structure and Function
    ** function ALWAYS reflects structure

    -what a structure can do always depends on its specific form
  10. Levels of Structural organization
    List them from smallest to largest
    • Chemical level
    • Cellular level
    • Tissue Level
    • Organ System Level
    • Organismal Level
  11. Levels of structural organization
    how does it work?
    Chemical level: atoms and molecules which make up...

    Cellular level: cells and their functions (organelles). A group of similar cells is called a....

    Tissue level: The similar cells that have a common function group together. 2 (more commonly 4) tissue types create an...

    Organ system level: These organs work together to accomplish a common purpose (such as the cardiovascular system)

    Organismal level: the sum total of all structural levels working together to keep us alive (aka, the whole person)
  12. Organ Systems
    name the 11 organ systems
    • 1. Integmentary system
    • 2. Skeletal system
    • 3. Muscular System
    • 4. Nervous System
    • 5. Endocrine System
    • 6. Cardiovascular System
    • 7. Lymphatic System
    • 8. Respiratory System
    • 9. Digestive System
    • 10. Urinary System
    • 11. Reproductive System
  13. Organ Systems
    Integumentary System
    Includes: hair, skin, and nails

    Accomplishes: a protectant barrier, sweats, helps regulate body temperature, produces vit. D
  14. Organ Systems
    Skeletal System
    Includes: bones, joints, tendons, ligaments, cartilages

    Accomplishes: body support, protects internal organs, levers for muscular action, red bone marrow produces blood cells
  15. Organ Systems
    Muscual System
    Includes: Skeletal Muscles

    Accomplishes: generates heat, contracts to allow movement, manipulation of the enviornment, and facial expressions
  16. Organ Systems
    Nervous System
    Brain, Spinal Cord, Nerves, and sensory receptors

    accomplishes: allows body to detect changes in stimilu and react appropriately through feedback mechanisms
  17. Organ Systems
    Endocrine System
    Includes: thyroid, thymus gland, pituitary gland, pineal gland, adrenal gland, pancreas, ovaries and testes

    accomplishes: helps maintain homeostasis, produces and regulates hormones, promotes growth and development
  18. Organ Systems
    Cardiovascular System
    includes: Heart, blood vessels, blood

    accomplishes: primarily a transport system that catties blood containing O2, CO2, nutrients, wastes, ions, hormones, and other substances to and from the tissue cells where exchanges are made, blood is propelled by the heart, antibodies and protiens in the blood act to protect the body
  19. Organ Systems
    Lympatic System (Immune System)
    includes: red bone marrow, thymus, lymph noes, lymphatic vessels, thoracic duct

    accomplishes: picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood, cleanses blood of pathogens and other debris, houses lymphocytes which act via the immune response to protect the body
  20. Organ Systems
    Respiratory System
    Includes: nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, broncus, and lungs

    Accomplishes: keeps blood supplied with O2 while removing CO2, contributes to the PH balance in blood
  21. Organ Systems
    Digestive System
    Includes: oral cavity, esophogus, liver, stomache, small isntestine, large intestine, rectum, anus

    Accomplishes: break down digested food into nutrients, indigested residue leaves body through fecal waste
  22. Organ Systems
    Urinary System
    includes: kidneys, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra

    Accomplishes: rids body of nitrogen containing waste such as urea, ammonia, and uric acid. maintains water, electrolye and acid-base balance of blood
  23. Organ Systems
    Reproductive System
    Includes: Male- prostate gland, penis, testes, scrotum, ductus defens. Female- vagina, uterus, uterine tune, mammary glands, and ovaries

    Accomplishes: provides sperm/germ cells, female also provides eggs/germ cells, uteras houses developing fetus, mammary glands provide nurishment for baby
  24. Necessary Life Functions
    Name them
    • 1. Maintaing boundaries
    • 2. Movement
    • 3. Responsiveness (Irritability)
    • 4. Digestion
    • 5. Metabolism
    • 6. Excretion
    • 7. Reproduction
    • 8. Growth
  25. Necessary Life Functions
    Maintaining boundaries
    The integmentary system keeps the inside distinct from the outside to prevent harmful changes such as the drying out of organs

    On a cellular level, the limiting membrane maintains the boundary
  26. Necessary Life Functions
    Movement
    Occurs when out skeletal muscles move our bodies or manipulate our enviornment. The skeletal system provides structure for this movement while the cardiovascual system and smooth muscles help to propell substances such as nutrients through the body.

    On a cellular level, the ability to shorten the muscles for movement is called contractility
  27. Necessary Life Functions
    Responsiveness/Irritability
    The ability to sense changes (which serve as simili) in the enviornment and repond to them

    This is an involuntary action like when you retract in pain or you breath harder due to a raised CO2 level in your blood.

    The nervous system is the most irritable and therefore the most responsible (nerve cells), although all cells are irritable to some extent
  28. Necessary Life Functions
    Digestion
    the breaking down of digested food stuffs into simple molecules that can be absorbed by the blood

    the digestive system breaks it down and the cardiovascular system distributes it through the body cells and moves the waste to disposal organs
  29. Necessary Life Functions
    Metabolism
    A broad term including ALL CHEMICAL REACTIONS THAT OCCUR WITHING BODY CELLS

    Catabolism: breaking down substances into their simplest forms

    Anabolism: sythesizing more complex cellular structures from their simplest forms

    Cellular respiration: using nutrients and oxygen to create ATP

    Metabolism depends on the digestive system and the respiratory system to make nutrients and oxygen available for the cardiovascular system to distribute to body cells. It is largely regulated by hormones secreted from the endocrine system
  30. Necessary Life Functions
    Excretion
    The process of removing excreta/waste.

    The digestive system rids the body of indigestible food residues in feces, while the urinary system rids the body of Nit. rich urea, uric acid, and ammonia is urine, and the respiratory system rids the body of CO2
  31. Necessary Life Functions
    Reproduction
    occurs on a cellular level through cellular reproduction

    creating a whole new person is the mail goal

    Controlled by the hormones of the endocrine system
  32. Necessary Life Functions
    Growth
    Increase in size of a body part or of the organism

    Happens through the multiplication of cells, although individual cells become larger when not dividing.

    For true growth to occue, constructive activies must be happening faster than destructive activities
  33. List the Survival Needs
    • 1. Nutrients
    • 2. Oxygen
    • 3. Water
    • 4. Normal Body Temp
    • 5. Appropriate atmospheric pressure
  34. Survival Needs
    Nutrients
    Contain the most chemical substances for energy and cell building

    • carbs--> energy
    • protiens--> essential for building cellular structures
    • fats-->storehouse for energy
    • viatmins and minerals--> used for chemical reactions
  35. Survival Needs
    Oxygen
    about 20% of the air we breath is O2

    ATP production requires oxygen, so without it we die.

    A combo of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems make O2 available to body cells
  36. Survival Needs
    Water
    The most abundant substance in our body at 60-80% of our body weight.

    Provides watery enviornment for chemical reactions and a fluid base for secretions and excretions
  37. Survival Needs
    Normal Body Temp
    98.6 degees F or 37 degrees C

    At either extreme, death occurs.

    • Lower-metabolic reactions become slower until they stop
    • Higher- chemical reactions occur at fast pace and protiens lose their shape and stop functioning

    it is the job of the muscular system to generate heat
  38. Survival Needs
    Appropriate Atmospheric pressure
    The force that air exerts on the body

    Breathing and gas exchange in the lungs depends on the atmospheric pressure being appropriate

    at hight alt. where the air is thin, gas exchange may be inadequate to support cellular metabolism
  39. Homesostasis
    The ability for the body to maintain a relatively stable internal conditions even though the outside world changes continuously

    its a dynamic state of equilibrium
  40. Homeostatic control
    Involves continual monitering and reguation of many cariables

    *key is communication throughout the body, chiefly through the nervous system
  41. Homeostatic Control Mechanism
    Receptor: some type of sensor which monitors the enviornment and responds to stimili by sending input to the control center through the afferent pathway

    Control Center:
    determines the set point (the level or range at which the variable can be maintained) and analyzes the input. It determines the correct response and this output goes along the efferent highway to the effector

    Effector: provides the means for the control center's output to the stimulus. The results of the response 'feedback' to influence the effect of the stimulus
  42. Negative Feedback Mechanisms
    The output shuts off the original effect of the stimulus or reduces its intensity

    cause the variable to change in a way OPPOSITE to that of the initial change RETURNING it to the 'ideal' value

    All negative feedback mechanisms have the same goal: preventing sudden, severe changes within the body
  43. Positive Feedback Mechanisms
    The result of the response ENHANCES the originial stimulus so that the response is ACCELERATED

    It deviates FURTHER from the original change

    used to control infrequent events that do not need continual adjustment

    ex: blood clotting, labor contractions

    They set off a series of events which are self perpetuating, like a waterfal. Often referred to as CASCADES
  44. Anatomical Position
    the body is erect with feet slightly apart; palms face forward with thumbs away from the body.

    this position is important for directional terms and also so that everyone can stay on the same page
  45. Directional Terms
    Superior (top or on top) vs. Inferior (below)

    Anterior (in front of or the front) vs. posterior (behind or the back)

    Medial/sagittal (towards the midline) vs. lateral (towards the outside)

    Proximal (close to the start of a limb) vs. distal

    superficial (external) vs. deep (internal)
  46. Regional Terms
    *2 major divisions: axial (head, neck, trunk) and appendicular (appendages or limbs)

    • Axial
    • -cephalic
    • -cervical
    • -thoracic (front)/dorsal (back)
    • -abdominal
    • -pubic

    • Appendicular
    • -upper limb
    • -manus
    • -lower limb
    • -pedal
  47. Planes and Sections
    Sagittal Plane: divides the body into left and right sides. down the middle is called midsagittal and on the side is parasagittal

    Frontal place: Divides body into posterior and anterior. also called the coronal plane

    Transverse plane: dives the body into superior and inferior, or cross sections.
  48. Body Cavities
    Name the big 2
    Dorsal

    Ventral
  49. Body Cavities
    Dorsal
    • 1. Cranial Cavity- houses brain
    • 2. Vertebral cavity- encloses spinal cord
  50. Body Cavities
    Ventral
    • 1. Thoracic cavity
    • A. Pleural cavity: holds the two lungs lateral to the mediastinum cavities
    • B. Superior mediastinum and pericardial cavity within mediastinum (holds the heart)

    *seperated by the diaphram*

    • 2. Abdominopelvic Cavity
    • A. Adominal cavity- holds the stomache, liver, pancreas, kidneys, intestines, spleen, and other organs
    • B. Pelvic cavity- contains urinary blasser, reproductive organs, and rectum
  51. Membranes in the Ventral Body Cavity
    Doubles layered membrane called SEROSA or SEROUS membrane cover the walls of the body cavity and the organs

    • 1. Parietal Serosa- part of the membrane that covers the walls
    • 2. Visceral Serosa- part of the membran that covers the organs

    *inbetween is a thin layer of SEROUS fluid to keep the organs from rubbing against one another

    The serous membrans are named for the specific organs and cavities they cover

    -perietal pericardium and visceral pericardium

    -parietal pleurae and visceral pleurae

    -parietal paritoneum (covers abdomen) and visceral paritoneum (covers organs)
  52. Abdominopelvic regions
  53. Abdominopelvic Quadrants
  54. Other body cavities
    • 1. Oral and digestive cavities
    • 2. nasal Cavitiy
    • 3. orbital cavitiy
    • 4. middle ear cavities
    • 5. synovial cavities (joint cavities)

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