chapter 5 vocab

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chapter 5 vocab
2012-01-21 00:55:59
med term

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  1. absorption
    Passage of materials through the walls of the small intestine into the bloodstream.
  2. amino acids
    small building blocks of proteins (like links in a chain) released weh proteins are digested.
  3. amylase
    enyme secreted by the pancreas to digest starch.
  4. anus
    terminal end or opening of the digestive track to the outside of the body
  5. appendix
    blind pouch hanging from the cecum (in the RLQ) It literlly means hanging (pend/o) on to (ap-, which is a form of ad-)
  6. bile
    digestive juice made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It breaks up (emulsifies) large fat globules.
  7. bilirubin
    pigment released by the liver in bile
  8. bowel
  9. canine teeth
    pointed, dog-like next the the incisors. calls called cuspids or eyeteeth.
  10. cecum
    first part of th elarge intestine
  11. colon
    large intestine, consisting of the cecim; the ascending, transverse. and decending segments of the colon; and the rectum.
  12. common bile duct
    carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum. also called the choledochus
  13. defecation
    elimination of feces from the digestive tract through the anus.
  14. deglutition
  15. dentin
    the primary material foudn in teeth. It is coverd by the enamel in the crown and a protective layer of cementum in the root.
  16. digestion
    breakdown of complex foods in simple forms.
  17. duodenum
    first part of the small intestine. duo=2 den= 10 the duodendum meaures 12 inches long.
  18. elimination
    act of removal of materials from the body; in the digestive sysstem, the removal of ingestible materials as feces.
  19. emulsification
    physical process of breaking up large fat globules into smaller globules, thereby increasing the suface area that enzymes can use the digest the fat.
  20. enamel
    hard, outermost layer of a tooth
  21. enzyme
    a chemical that speeds up a reactin between substances. Digestive enzumes break down foods to simpler substances. /enzumes are given names that end in -ase.
  22. esophagus
    tube connecting the throat to the stomach, ESO- means inward Phag/o means swallowing
  23. fatty acids
    substances produced when fats are digested
  24. gallbladder
    small sac under the liver; stores bile. remember: gallbladder is 1word
  25. gluose
    Simple Suger
  26. glycogen
    starch; glucose is stored in the form of glycogen in liver cells.
  27. hydrochloric acid
    substances produced by the stomach; necessary for digestion of food.
  28. ileum
    3rd part of the small intestine. twisted
  29. incisor
    one of four front teeth in the dental arch.
  30. insulin
    hormone produced by the endocrine cells of the pancrease. it transports sugar from the blood into cells and stimulates glyocgen formation by the liver
  31. jejunum
    second part of the small intestine. Empty
  32. lipase
    pancreatic enzyme necessary to bigest fat
  33. liver
    A lage organ located in the RUQ of the abdomen. The live secretes bile; stores sugar, iron, and vitamins; produces blood proteins; and destroys worn- out red blood cells. The normal adult liver weighs about 2 1/2 to 3 pounds
  34. lower esophageal sphincter(LES)
    Ring of muscles between the esophagus and the stomach. aka cardiac sphincter.
  35. mastication
  36. molar teeth
    the sixth, sevent, and eight teeth from the middle on either side of the dental arch. Premolor teeth are the fourth and fithf teeth, before the molars.
  37. palate
    roof of the mouth. the hard palate lies anterior to the soft palate and is suported by the upper jaybone(maxilla). The soft palate is the posterior fleshy part between the mouth and the throat.
  38. pancrease
    organ under the stomach; produces insulin 9for transport of sugar into cells) and enzymes ( for digestion of food)
  39. papillae ( singular: papilla)
    small elevation of the the tounge. a papilla is a nipple like elevation