Chapter 1: Biology

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Chapter 1: Biology
2012-01-21 03:25:51

chapter one terms
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  1. Biology
    scientific study of life
  2. Order in life's organization (11)
    1. Atom

    2. Molecule

    3. Cell

    4. Tissue

    5. Organ

    6. Organ system

    7. Multicelled organism

    8. Population

    9. Community

    10. ecosystem

    11. Biosphere
  3. 1. (Life's order organization) Atom
    fundamental building block of all matter
  4. 2. (Life's order organization) Molecule
    an association of two or more atoms
  5. 3. (Life's order organization) Cell
    smallest unit of life
  6. 4. (Life's order organization) Tissue
    in multicelled organisms, specialized cells organized in a pattern that allows them to perform a collective function
  7. 5. (Life's order organization) Organ
    in multicelled organisms, a grouping of tissues engaged in a collective task
  8. 6. (Life's order organization) Organ system
    set of organs enagaged in a collective task that keeps the body functioning properly.
  9. 7. (Life's order organization) Multicelled organism
    is an individual that consists of one or more cells
  10. 8. (Life's order organization) Population
    group of individuals of the same species that live in a given area
  11. 9. (Life's order organization) Community
    all populations of all species in a given area
  12. 10. (Life's order organization) Ecosystem
    a community interacting with its environment
  13. 11. (Life's order organization) Biosphere
    all regions of Earth where organisms live
  14. (Energy and nutrients) Energy
    capacity to do work
  15. (Energy and nutrients) Nutrient
    substance that an organism needs for growth and survival but cannot make for itself
  16. (Energy and nutrients) Producers
    organism that makes its own food using energy and simple raw materials from the environment
  17. (Energy and nutrients) Photosynthesis
    process by which producers use light energy to make sugars from carbon dioxide and water.
  18. (Energy and nutrients) Consumers
    organism that gets energy and nutrients by feeding on tissues, wastes, or remains of other organisms

    - animals are decomposers and consumers.
  19. Homeostasis
    set of processes by which an organism keeps its internal conditions within tolerable ranges
  20. DNA ( Deoxyribonucleic acid)
    carries hereditary information that guides growth and development
  21. Reproduction
    processes by which parents produce offspring
  22. Inheritance
    transmission from parents to offspring
  23. (Living things differ) Biodiversity
    variation among living organism
  24. (Living things differ) Nucleus
    double-membraned sac that encloses a cell's DNA
  25. (Living things differ) Bacteria
    member of a large group of single-celled organism

    -DNA is not contained in its nucleus
  26. (Living things differ) Archeans
    member of a large group of single-celled organisms that differ from bacteria

    -are more like Eukaryotes
  27. (Living things differ) Eukaryotes
    organisms whose cells characteristically have a nucleus

    -larger and more complex than bacteria and archaens
  28. (Living things differ) Protists
    member of a diverse group of simple eukaryotes

    -range from single celled to multi celled organisms
  29. (Living things differ) Fungi
    type of eukaryotic consumer that obtains nutrients by digestion and absorption outside the body

    -many are decomposers
  30. (Living things differ) Plants
    multicelled typicall photosynthetic producer

    -live on land or in freshwater environments
  31. (Living things differ) Animals
    multicelled consumer that develops through a series of stages and moves about during part or all of its life cycle
  32. (Naming species) taxonomy
    science of naming and classifying species
  33. (Living things differ) Genus
    a group of species that share a unique set of traits; also the first part of species name.
  34. (Living things differ) Specific epithet
    second part of a species name
  35. (Living things differ) Taxon
    Linnaean category, grouping of organisms
  36. (Experimenting) INductive reasoning
    drawing conclusion based on observation
  37. (Experimenting) Deductive reasoning
    using general idea to make a conclusion about a specific case.

    -using a hypothesis
  38. (Experimenting) Independent variable
    variable controlled by an experiment in order to explore its relationship to a dependent variable

    -variable being tested
  39. (Experimenting) Dependent variable
    variable that is presumably affected by the independent variabe being tested
  40. (Experimenting) Control group
    group of individuals who are not exposed to the independent variable that is being tested
  41. Law of nature
    a consistent natural phenomenon for which there is no complete scietific explanation
  42. Scientific theory
    hypothesis that has not been dsproven