Phram. Quiz 1.txt

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Phram. Quiz 1.txt
2012-01-21 05:03:32
Pharmacology Quiz

Pharmacology Quiz 1
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  1. Study of drugs (chemicals, including their origin, properties, and interactions with living organisms.
  2. Any chemical that alters the organisms's functions or processes. Ex: O2, OH, LSD, heparin, epinephrine, and vitamins.
  3. What are the five ways drugs are named?
    Chemical, Code, Official, Generic, and Trade (Brand)
  4. Name that indicates the drug's chemical structure.
  5. A name assigned by a manufacturer to an experimental chemical that shows potential as a drug. Ex: Aerosol SCH 1000
  6. An experimental drug becomes approved for general use. The generic name becomes the?
    Official Name
  7. Known as the nonproprietary name, in contrast to the brand name.
  8. proprietary name, given by a particular manufacturer.
    Trade ( Brand name)
  9. Is a book of standards containing information about medications, dietary supplements, and medical devices.
  10. This annual volume provides useful information, including descriptive color charts for drug identification, names of manufacturers, and general drug actions.
    Physicians' Desk Reference (PDR)
  11. What is the source of manufacturing thyroid hormone, insulin, pancreatic dornase
  12. What is the source used to manufacture, Khellin (Ammi visnaga), atropine (belladonna alkaloid), digitalis (foxglove), reserpine (Rauwolfia serpentina), volatile oils of eucalyptus, pine, anise
  13. What is the source used to manufacture Copper sulfate, magnesium sulfate (Epsom salts), mineral oil (liquid hydrocarbons)
  14. What is the first process for drug approval in the US?
    isolation and identification of the chemical.
  15. In this stage of drug aproval animal studies are done, general effects studied, special effects on organs systems and toxicolody studies.
    Isolation and identification
  16. In the investigational new drug (IND) approval, how many phase studies are there?
    Phase 1, 2, and 3
  17. Which phase has studies done on small number of healthy subjects?
    Phase 1
  18. Which phase has studies done on small number of subjects with disease?
    Phase 2
  19. Which phase has studies on Large multicenter studies
    Phase 3
  20. New drug application (NDA) has a reporting system for the first _________?
    6 months
  21. is a drug or biologic product for the diagnosis or treatment of a rare disease
    Orphan drug
  22. drug does not require a prescription for purchase
    Over-the-counter (OTC)
  23. is the written order for a drug, along with any specific instructions for compounding, dispensing, and taking the drug. This order may be written by a physician, osteopath, dentist, veterinarian, and others but not by chiropractors or opticians.
  24. What is the most common source of drug preperation?
    Chemical Synthesis
  25. Research and development and pre and post clinical trials for a new drug may meet or exceed?
    $900 million
  26. What is insulin prepared from?
  27. What is the first step in drug development?
    I.D. a chemical with potential
  28. What is digitalis prepared from?
  29. What is the second step in drug development?
    Animal studies for general effects and toxicology
  30. What are datropine, khelin and reserpine prepared from?
  31. What is the third stepo in drug development?
    Investigational New Drug (IND) application
  32. When is a new drug tested on humans?
    Investigational New Drug (IND) application
  33. When is a new drug released for general clinical use?
    New drug application (NDA)
  34. These drugs are delivered by oral or nasal inhalation. Inteneded to provide a local topical treatment of the respiratory tract.
    Aerosolized agents
  35. What are some advantages of Aerosolized agents?
    Smaller than doses used for the same purpose and given systematically, side effects are usally fewer and less severe, onset is rapid, targeted to respiratory system with lower systemic bioavailability, painless, relatively safe, and convenient.
  36. What drug group does antibiotics or antituberculous drugs fall?
    Antiinfective agents
  37. What drug group does curariform agents fall under?
    Neuromuscular blocking agents
  38. What drug group does analgesics and sedatives/hypnotics fall under?
    Central nervous system agents
  39. What drug group does cardiac glycosides and lidocaine fall under?
    Antiarrhythmic agents
  40. What drug group does �-blocking agents or nitroglycerin fall under?
    Antihypertensive and antianginal agents
  41. What drug group does heparin or strepokinase fall under?
    Anticoagulant and thrombolytic agents.
  42. What drug group does thiazides pr furosemide fall under?
  43. A physician can indicate to the pharmacist that generic substitution is permitted in the filling of a prescription. In such a case, the pharmacist may provide any manufacturer's version of the prescribed drug and not _________.
    A specific brand
  44. What percentage of the drug impacts in the mouth or oropharynx?
  45. What percent reaches the stomach? (this includes the percantage that lands in the mouth ot oropharynx)
  46. What is the accepted percentage pf medication that reaches the lower respiratory tract?
  47. The aerosol drug can be absorbed from the stomach and metabolized in the liver, producing a?
    First pass effect
  48. The site of absorption in the gastrointestinal tract is determined by the principles governing diffusion of drugs through ________.
    Lipid membranes
  49. If the first -pass metabolism is high, systemic levels are due only to?
    lung absorbtion.
  50. If the first- pass metabolism is low and drug is swallowed, these is a higher systemic level from gastrointestinal tract absorption, which may increase what?
    side effects in the body
  51. What is the first -pass metabolism percentage of Albuterol?
  52. What is the first -pass metabolism percentage of Budesonide?
  53. What is the first -pass metabolism percentage of Terbutaline?
  54. It is thought that aerosol drugs interact with the site of action in the airway: examples are?
    secretions in the lumen, nerve endings, cells, or bronchial smooth muscle in the airway wall
  55. If the inhaled drug is not removed by mucociliary action or locally inactivated, the drug may be ______, and this increases the systemic availability of the drug.
  56. is a drug or chemical that binds to a corresponding receptor (affinity) and initiates a cellular effect or response.
  57. Is a drug or chemical that is able to bind to a receptor (affinity) but causes nor response.
  58. inhibits or blocks the agonist at the receptor?
  59. Agonists are devided further into to catagories
    full and partial agonists
  60. is a durg that gives a higher maximal responce.
    Full Agonist
  61. Has less efficacy than a full agonist
  62. Direct chemical interaction between drug and biologic mediator, which inactivates the drug. An example is chelation of toxic metals by a chelating agent
    Chemical anatgonism
  63. Can occur when two drugs each produce an effect, and the two effects cancel each other. For example, methacholine can stimulate parasympathetic (muscarinic) receptors in the airways, causing bronchoconstriction; epinephrine can stimulate �2 receptors in the airways, causing bronchodilation.
    Functional antagonism
  64. Occurs when a drug has affinity for a receptor but no efficacy and at the same time blocks the active agonist from binding to and stimulating the receptor. For example, fexofenadine is a competitive antagonist to histamine on specific receptors (H1) on bronchial smooth muscle and the nasopharynx and is used to treat allergies to pollens.
    Competitive antagonism
  65. Occurs when two drugs act on a target organ by different mechanisms of action, and the effect of the drug pair is greater than the sum of the separate effects of the drugs.
  66. Occurs when two drugs act on the same receptors, and the combined effect is the simple linear sum of the effects of the two drugs, up to a maximal effect.
  67. A special case of synergism in which one drug has no effect but can increase the activity of the other drug.
  68. Global term describing or referring to extension, auxiliary, or add-on devices attached to MDIs for administration. This term can include �spacer� and �valved holding chamber�.
    Reservoir device
  69. Simple tube or extension device with no one-way valves to contain the aerosol cloud; its purpose is simply to extend the MDI spray away from the mouth.
  70. Describing the tendency of aerosol particles to remain in suspension.
  71. Spacer device with the addition of one-way valve to contain and hold the aerosol cloud until inspiration occurs.
    Valved holding chamber
  72. refers to the delivery of aerosol particles to the respiratory tract.
    Aerosol therapy
  73. What are the three main uses of aerosol in respiratory care?
    Humidification, Improved mobilization and clearance of secretions, and delivery of drugs
  74. is a suspension of solid or liquid particles whose deposition in the respiratory tract is determined by inertial impaction, gravitational settling (sedimentation), and, perhaps less importantly, diffusion (brownian motion).
  75. Suspension of liquid or solid particles between 0.001 and 100 micrometers (�m) in diameter in a carrier gas.2 For pulmonary diagnostic and therapeutic applications, the particle size range of interest is 1 to 10 �m. Particles in this size range are small enough to exist as a suspension and to enter the lung and large enough to deposit and contain the required amount of an agent.