Polysaccharides, nucleic acids, porteins, and lipids
Starches, glycogen, and cellulose
fatty acids and glycerol
amino acids, which contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, notrogen, and sometimes sulfur
Nucleic Acids monomers
nucleotides, which is composed of sugar, a phosphate group, and a base with a nitrogen-containing molecule
what are carbohydrates made up of?
made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxyge and they include sugars and starches
What do carbohydrates do?
Provide a source of usable chemical energy for cells, and are a major part of plant cell structure.
each subunit in the complete molecule is called a monomer
a large molecule, or macromolecule, made of many monomers bonded together
a substance that decreases the activation energy need to start a chemical reaction, which allows the chemical reaction rate to increase
What is an enzyme
catalysts for chemical reactoins in living things
What does an enzyme do?
an enzyme lowers the activation enery and increase the rate of chemical reactions.
What are enzymes made of?
almost all enzymes are proteins and like all other proteins are long chains of amino acids.
What conditions affect enzymes?
Temperature, pH level, and ionic conditions
How do enzymes work?
The substrates bind to an enzyme at an active site, then the enzyme brings the substrates together and weakens their bonds, and last the catalyzed reaction forms a product that is released from the enzyme.
What is an enzyme often referred to as?
the lock-and-key model
specific reactants than enzymes act on
cchains of carbona toms bondd to hydrogen atoms
What are the two types of fatty acids?
Unsaturated fatty acids and saturated fatty acid
What are amino acids made up of?
molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, ozygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur
Describe a phospholipid
It is made up of a polar "head" taht contatins a phosphate group, and two nonpolar fatty acid "tails" coming off of the polar "head"
Has three fatty acid "tails" and a molecule of glycerol, but no phosphate group
what do chemical reactions do?
change substances into different substances by breaking an forming chemical bonds
What is a reactant?
the substances changed during a chemica reaction
What is a product?
the substances made by a chemcial reaction
What is equilibrium?
When a reaction takes place an an equal rate in both directions, the reactant and product concentraions stay the same
When is equilibrium reached?
when both the reactants and products are made at the same rate
What is activation energy?
the amount of energy that needs to be absorbed for a chemical reaction to start