Science Final Ch. 2

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  1. Scientific Method
    • 1. make observation
    • 2. state problem/question
    • 3. hypothesis
    • 4. test/experiment
    • 5. gather data
    • 6. graph/analysis
  2. Macromolecules for life
    Polysaccharides, nucleic acids, porteins, and lipids
  3. Polysaccharides monomers
    Starches, glycogen, and cellulose
  4. Lipid monomers
    fatty acids and glycerol
  5. Protein monomers
    amino acids, which contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, notrogen, and sometimes sulfur
  6. Nucleic Acids monomers
    nucleotides, which is composed of sugar, a phosphate group, and a base with a nitrogen-containing molecule
  7. what are carbohydrates made up of?
    made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxyge and they include sugars and starches
  8. What do carbohydrates do?
    Provide a source of usable chemical energy for cells, and are a major part of plant cell structure.
  9. Monomer
    each subunit in the complete molecule is called a monomer
  10. Polymer
    a large molecule, or macromolecule, made of many monomers bonded together
  11. Catalyst
    a substance that decreases the activation energy need to start a chemical reaction, which allows the chemical reaction rate to increase
  12. What is an enzyme
    catalysts for chemical reactoins in living things
  13. What does an enzyme do?
    an enzyme lowers the activation enery and increase the rate of chemical reactions.
  14. What are enzymes made of?
    almost all enzymes are proteins and like all other proteins are long chains of amino acids.
  15. What conditions affect enzymes?
    Temperature, pH level, and ionic conditions
  16. How do enzymes work?
    The substrates bind to an enzyme at an active site, then the enzyme brings the substrates together and weakens their bonds, and last the catalyzed reaction forms a product that is released from the enzyme.
  17. What is an enzyme often referred to as?
    the lock-and-key model
  18. Substrate
    specific reactants than enzymes act on
  19. Fatty Acids
    cchains of carbona toms bondd to hydrogen atoms
  20. What are the two types of fatty acids?
    Unsaturated fatty acids and saturated fatty acid
  21. What are amino acids made up of?
    molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, ozygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur
  22. Describe a phospholipid
    It is made up of a polar "head" taht contatins a phosphate group, and two nonpolar fatty acid "tails" coming off of the polar "head"
  23. Triglyceride
    Has three fatty acid "tails" and a molecule of glycerol, but no phosphate group
  24. what do chemical reactions do?
    change substances into different substances by breaking an forming chemical bonds
  25. What is a reactant?
    the substances changed during a chemica reaction
  26. What is a product?
    the substances made by a chemcial reaction
  27. What is equilibrium?
    When a reaction takes place an an equal rate in both directions, the reactant and product concentraions stay the same
  28. When is equilibrium reached?
    when both the reactants and products are made at the same rate
  29. What is activation energy?
    the amount of energy that needs to be absorbed for a chemical reaction to start
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Science Final Ch. 2
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