Bio 1115 Taxonomy
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What is taxonomy?
A branch of biology that is concerned with classifying organisms according to their common features.
Why is there a huge difference between the amount of species we have identified 1.8 million compared to the 10 - 100 million species that exsist?
Because there are many areas in the word we haven't explored . ex. oceans
What are the 7 phylogenic Tree of life?
- 1. bacteria
- 2. Archea
- 3. Green algae
- 4. Plants
- 5. Invertebrates
- 6. Vertebrates
- 7. Fungi
(T)How to define a new "species"?
- 1. Similar in appearance
- 2. able to reproduce commonly with each other in nature
- 3. produce fertile offspring
Species are organisms that are similar in appearance and reproduce commonly with one another in nature to produce fetile offspring
What are the three domains?
Bacteria, Eukarya, Archea
(T)What thre the levels of classifcations in order and a specific example of each one?
- From bottom to top
- 1. Domain (Eukarya, Archaea, Bacteria)
- 2. Kingdom(Animallia)
- 3. Phylum(Chordata)
- 4. Class(Mammalia)
- 5. Order(Carnivora)
- 6. Family(Felidae)
- 7. Genius(Panthera)
- 8. Species(pardus)
What is a bacteria?
Bacteria are the most diverse, most widespread, and momst common prokaryotes
What is a Archaea?
Archaea are arare, "Ancient" prokaryotes taht exist in harsh enviroments
(T)How do Archaea live in harsh environments?
Because of their cellular structure, outer part of the cell(plasma membrane) has branched fatty acids that connect to one another. They have a ether linkage! Rather than humans who have a ester linkage. Ether linkage STRONG!
(T)Compare and contrast bacteria and archaea domains
- 1. They are both prokaryotes
- 1. Archaea have different plasma membrane that resist
- 2. Archaea DNA has histones and introns
- 3. Bacteria cell wall ahs peptidoglycan
Why is archaea plasma membrane different than bacteria?
(T)What is a histone in DNA function?
Histones are the proteins closely associated with DNA molecules. They are responsible for the structure of chromatin and play important roles in the regulation of gene expression.
What are introns in DNA?
They are jump segments that dont' code for anything
How do Fungi carry out decomposition when they are multicellular?
The organism releases digestive juice on dead corpses (external digestion)
What are three examples of eukarya domain and define them
- 1. Protists are mostly unicellular, aquatic eukaryotes
- 2. Plants are all multicellular eukaryotes that carry out photosynthesis
- 3. Animals are multi-cellular eukaryotes that breakdown food within specialized cavities
What is the purpose for classifcation of organisms?(4)
- 1. Allows for the organization of all organisms in the Universe
- 2. Classification of an organism provides info about its commmon characteristics
- 3. Classifcation reflects evolunionary history of an organism
- 4. Allows for naming of every organism in the universe
(T)The scientific name of an organism consists of what two parts? Describe and give an example.
- 1. Genus name is written first and the first letter is capitalized
- 2. Species name follows the genus name and is not copitalized
Ex. Homo sapiens
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