Biology chapter 7.txt

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asfreeze
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129422
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Biology chapter 7.txt
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2012-01-21 16:02:39
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Biology chapter
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Biology chapter 7.txt
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  1. Nucleus
    • Control center of cells... Controls all cell activities
    • contains DNA (chromosomes)
  2. Cell membrane
    • found in all cells
    • contols what moves in and out of cells
    • made of two layers: phospholipids and proteins
  3. Cell wall
    • found in plants NOT in animals cells
    • strong, porous covering
    • maintaining shape of cell
    • contains celloulouse (fiber)
  4. Nuclear membrane
    • membrane and surrounds the nucleus (protective)
    • traffic contol from the nucleus to the cytoplasm
    • allows RNA and ribosomes to exit
  5. Nucleolus
    • found inside the nucleus
    • making RNA (used for mKing protein)
  6. Chromosomes
    • "colored bodies"
    • gene carriers
    • units of hiredity
    • made of DNA
  7. Eukaryote
    cells that contain a nucleus and membrane bound structures
  8. Prokaryote
    • cells that do not contain a well defined nucleus or membrane bound structures
    • example: bacteria
  9. Chloroplast
    • found only in plant cells involved in photosynthises
    • convertes carbon dioxide, water, chlorophyll into glucose
  10. Cytoplasm
    • liquid portions of all cells
    • all chemical reactions occur in the cytoplasm
    • mostly water (59-80%)
  11. Lysosome
    • clean up crew
    • bags of powerful enzymes
    • digests unnecessary/ damaged cells and help with digestion
  12. Ribosome
    • site where amino acids are assembles into proteins
    • site of protein synthesis
  13. Vacuole
    • sacs that store water, wastes, and food.
    • takes up the central parts of plant cells (small in animal cells)
  14. E.R. Endoplasmic reticulum
    • two types: rough/ smooth
    • serves as a transport system
    • rough: ribosomes attached and proteins are transported
    • smooth: ribosomes not attached. Transports enxymes for metabolism
  15. Centrioles
    • used for cell division in animal cells
    • contains two identical cylinders called centromeres
  16. Mitochondria
    • "powerhouse" of the cell
    • site of cellular respiration and energy production
  17. Golgi body
    • "packaging department"
    • "post office"
    • directs packaging and transport of porteins
    • flattened bag- like membranrs
  18. Microfilament
    • contraction and cell shape (changes shape)
    • movement of materials and support
    • part of the cytoskeleton and is made of protein
  19. Microtubule
    • part of the cytoskeleton
    • movement of materials and helps cells maintain its shape
  20. Organelle
    • "tiny organs"
    • membrane bound structures found inside cells
    • example: nucleus, mitochondria, vacuole, E.R.
  21. Cell
    • Basic unit of structure and function of all living things
    • all cells have a cell membrane and cytoplasm
  22. Cell theory
    • all cells come from pre- existing cells
    • cells are the basic unit of structure and function
    • all organisms are made up of one or more cells

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