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Berkeley is best known for what controversial maxim?
"Esse est percipi" or 'to be is to be perceived." We can only know what is actually impriinted on our senses or can be remembered of our sensations, and what we can know by reflecting on our ideas
Berkeley distinguishes between what two activies of the mind? Why is this distinction important?
between the percipere (activity of the mind) and the percipi (the impression received by the mind). He distinguishes b/t products of the imagination and perceived impressions as external phenomena
Is describing something the same as explaining something?
How did Berkely change the idealist idea that for something to exist it must be observed by a person?
"Truth is that which corresponds to reality as it's perceived by God. GOd is the great perceiver by and in whose ideas really exist.
Many people believe that David Hume destroyed once and for all what?
the law of causality
Hume argues that the total content of the mind can be reduced to the data provided by what?
sensory experience, or perceptions
Perceptions take on what two forms according to Hume?
impressions (original data) and ideas (copies/memories of the data)
According to Hume, what three qualities allow all ideas to be associated with each other in the imagination?
resemblance, contiguity in time and space, cause and effect
According to Hume, empirical experience furnishes what three reasons for speaking of causal relationships?
contiguity (A & B always occur together spatially), priority w/ respect to time (cause always precedes the effect), and constant conjunction (we always see A followed by B)
The law of causality is simply an abstract idea of what?
the law of noncontradiction
What is Hume's main point regarding the cause-and-effect relationship?
Causality comes from relation. We see an effect in proximity of a cause, but it's only a cause & effect because we perceive. Anything can be considered cause and effect based on perception. We have no original sensation or impression of causality itself. We can't know w/ certainty the cause of something.
How does Hume define a miracle?
a violation of natural law, which is established by repetitive, uniform experience
Hume's argument violates what fallacy?
circular reasoning or begging the question (petitio principi)
What is Hume's concept of the "probability quotient"?
evidence is based on the accumulative number of instances confirming a principle or idea; he uses inductive reasoning, which doesn't prove anything
In an attempt to rule out miracles what did he also end up ruling out?
all empirical evidence
In Hume's system of reasoning, is a first time event supportable?
No, a first time event must be denied because it's unique. If the 1st experience is denied, there can't be a second. The second would be the first & the process of elimination would continue.
What is Immanuel Kant's most famous work?
Critique of Pure Reason
What generally discredited theory is still believed by those who want to disavow the "God-hypothesis"?
Did Kant believe that God could be demonstrated by "pure reason"? Did he believe in God?
The most well-known elements of Kant's philosophy are what two concepts. Explain the difference b/t the two.
- the phenomenal- the things that we can experience with our senses. Appearance. Must be filtered through a priori categories of thought.
- the noumenal- the realm beyond our senses. Thing-in-itself exists in this realm and can't be fully known. The self & God belong to this realm
Who argues that God can be known in the phenomenal realm/
Thomas Aquinas and Paul
What are Kant's evaluations of the ontological, cosmological, and teleological arguments?
- ontological- existence is somethiing different from the thing itself (not a predicate). Knowing the nature of something different than the affirming of its existence. Ex: unicorns.
- cosmological- He rejects it because it's based on the ontological argument.
- teleological- impressed Kant & Hume the most. Rejects it because it depends on the cosmological, which in turn depends on the ontological.
What is the main point of D'Souza's chapter regarding David Hume?
Hume's argument against miracles can be shown to be invalid by Hume's own philosophy.
What is Richard Dawkin's main contention concerning scientific laws & miracles?
They are violations of scientific laws. You can't violate these laws. So, you can't have miracles.
Who is the early scholar that maintained that miracles were myths?
What is the core argument that refutes Hume's own contention?
He said that human knowledge is so limited & unreliable that it can't dismiss the possibility of miracles.
What is the core belief of Logical Positivists?
Science operates in the verifiable domain of laws & facts while morality operates in the subjective & unverifiable domain of choices and values
What is the difference between analytic and synthetic statements?
An analytic statemetnt can be established as true or false by examining the statement itself. With a synthetic statement, one must verify the facts.
What are two different statements that are neither true by definition nor are they true by verification?
- There's life after death or God made the universe.
- David Hume's criteria for justification.
Why are scientific laws unverifiable?
No finite number of observations, however large, can be used to derive an unrestricted general conclusion that's logically defensible. You can't prove something using the inductive method.
Hume argued a disconnection between what two concepts
cause & effect
Netwon's "laws" were true and vindicated for 200 years until they were replaced by "laws" developed by whom?
Einstein & the theory of relativity
According to Popper, what is the only function of science in regard to theories?
It can falsify theories, but it can't verify them.
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