What are some major properties of water? and explain
High specific heat- takes a lot of E to heat up water and its buffers temp changes well
high heat of vaporization- good for evaporation
cohesion- water likes to stick to water
adhesion- water likes to stick to other surfaces
capillarity- water has abililty to climb
what are three ways water moves things? explain
Bulk Flow- many types of mol. moving together
Diffusion- mol.moving from high Concentration to low
Osmosis- water mol. diffuse through selective membrane
explain water potential and its three components
water potential is the free E of water. the ability of water to do something. 3 components- Solute potential, pressure potential and gravity potential
explain water potential of flacid cell dropped into a sucrose solution after it reaches equilibrium
water flows into cell so there is and increase in pressure potential of cell, and the water potential is then increase.
what is the primary force that drives water from soil to air?
what three ways is water taken up into the system? explain them
Apoplast pathway- goes in between cells
Symplast- goes through cells
Casparian strip- allows apoplast to transport into symplastic pathway to get to xylem
Most water moves across membranes through _________
what are 2 forces that dive water uptake into roots?
High solute concentration and transpiration
Stomata are controlled by what type of cells?
water transport is done mainly through _______
Transport occurs through ______ driven__________
pressure , bulk flow
when you have low water potential and low pressure potential in th leaves what happen?
what is the purpose of the pits in the vessels or tracheids?
pits stop bubbles from becoming too great and causing embolesm
what are the essential elements required for plant growth and where are they obtained. Where are other essential nutrients absorbed in the plant
C O H from the air and Rhizosphere absorbs other essential nutrients
How do the minerals enter the apoplast?
Bulk flow by diffusion
what are the three ways that minerals can go through membrane?
1. when it first goes into symplast
2. Symplast to xylem
3. in and out of vacuoule
what is the difference between channels carriers and pumsp?
channels are non specific and gates and work through diffusion, carriers are slower bc they are specifi and use passive transport to facilitate diffusion or secondary active transport to counter diffusion. pumps use E from ATP to counter diffusion
what are two ways plants scavenge nutrients in poor soils?
carniverous and mychorizal fungi
Minerals enter the ______ by _______ together with wwater by ________
apoplast, bulkflow, diffusion
Minerals move to the shoot and the leave in the _______
What are the three ways nutirnets get into the membrane?
1. when they first go into the symplast
2. from the symplast to the xylem
3. in and out of vacuoules
What are different types of active transport and describe them
primary and secondary. Primary uses pumps to move solutes againts their conc. gradient. secondary moves solutes against each other one with gradient one against.
define ectotrophic and arbuscular
dense mantel of mucellium and penetrate root cells and create arbuscles
Plants control the distribution of solutes in the plants by controlling solutes movement across membranes where do plants exert control over mineral uptake?
carrier, transport proteins, pumps. they occur in cell membrane.
a carrier has passive, secondary or primary active transport?
passive by facilitating diffusion and secondary active with use of symporter/antiporter
channels use what kind of transport. primary active secondary active or passive
what is the "endosymbiotic theory"
that chloroplast resemble engulfed cyanobacteria
which structures in the chloroplast resemble cytoplasm
stroma and luemen
light is both a ______ and a _______
explain "rain of photons"
E and info
light is absorbed by what pigments
chrlorphyll a and b. caretonoids beta-carotene, lyopene, and leutein
what is the diff. between the light and dark rxns?
Light- E from sun converted to chem. E
dark- chem E is used to fix C
Decribe the light harvesting complex and how it works.
light hits the pigment mol during the E tranfer phase then is tranfered to a reaction center during the electron transfer phase and the electrons work with the rxn center either as electron donors or acceptors
describe the ETC
light rxns organ. on thylakoid membrane. water gets oxidized in lumen by chlorophyll in photosystem 2 rxn center leaving protons in lumen. Electrons are excited to high E state and passed to platoquinones whihc bind H from stroma. then reduced plastoquinones tranfer electrons to cytochrom b64. then passed to plastocyanin then transfers electrons to photosystem 1 then passed to ferrodoxin and reduces NADP to NADPH
explain the ATP synthesis process
protons in lumen form electochem. gradient across thylakoid membrane ATP synthase couples proton movement to ATP synthesis through photophosphorylation
The Calvin cycle uses____ and _____ to convert _____ to sugar
NADPH, ATP, carbon dioxide
explain the products of regeneration and carboxylation. and the products after regeneration
ATP from light activates RuBisCO activase and RuBisCO leads to carboxylation. The light E also decrease the protons in the stroma causeing modulation of RuBisCO which adds a C to and causes carboxylation
______ can also oxygenate ribulose bisphosphate triggereing photorespiration.
what is the end product of the photorespirtation
3 triose phosphates and 1 carbon dioxide
T/FWhen CO2 is limiting excess reducations acculate and it can be damaging to ETC
________ consumes excess reductants when CO2 is limiting and reduces damage to photosystems
______ and _______ are affected by CO2 concentration and temp.
carboxylation and oxygenation
What happens in photorespiration when there are high temps
increases RuBisCO oxygenationand reduce uptake of CO2 from air
________ evolved in hot climate plants to increase CO2 concentrations around RuBisCO
How is carbon initially fixed in the C4 photosynthesis
PEP carboxylase converts PEP to oxaloacetate
what enviornment do C3, C4 and CAM plants survive best in?
temperate, hot, arid.
What are some strategies to maximize light?
steal light by growing taller and wider.
follow the sun (diaheliotrophism)
collect light through light harvesting complex
what are strategies to minimize light?
reflect light with leaf hairs, waxy leaves and salt glands
transmit light by reducing chlroplast numbers or repositioning the chloroplasts