Petrology

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wfoster0006
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129453
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Petrology
Updated:
2012-01-21 17:11:08
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Cards for the first Exam. 1/22/12
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  1. What is a Nesosilicate?
    This is composed of a single silicate tetrahedon. It's 1 Silicon atom surrounded by 4 oxygen atoms. SIO4 the building block of the silicate family.
  2. What is a Sorosilicate?
    This is composed of a double silicate tetrahedon. It's 2 nesosilicate joining together and sharing one Oxygen at the point. The ratio will always be 2:7. Si2O7
  3. What is a Cyclosilicate?
    This is composed of a ring of nesosilicate's. Cyclosilicates can be found in 3 member families, 6 member, and rarely found in a 9 member family. Therefore the ratio is 3:1 Si3O9, Si4O12, and Si6O18
  4. What is an Inosilicate?
    Is a set of single tetraheda that form an interlocking chain. Inosilicates can form a single chain with the ratio of 1:3 SiO3 or found in a double chain where the ratio: is then 4:11 Si4O11
  5. What is a Phyllosilicate
    Known as sheet silicates. Phyllosilicates form parallel sheets of silicate tetrahedra with Si2O5 or a 2:5 ratio.
  6. What is a tectosilicate?
    Known as the "framework silicates," have a three-dimensional framework of silicate tetrahedra with SiO2 or a 1:2 ratio. This group comprises nearly 75% of the crust of the Earth.
  7. What are the Five Bonding forces in crystals?
    • Ionic bond
    • Covalent Bond
    • Metallic Bond
    • Van Der Waals bond
    • Hydrogen Bond
  8. How does an Ionic Bond Work?
    When ionic crystals are formed, electrons jump their orbits to bond with the corresponding supporting atom. The resultant combination of negatively or positively charged electrostatic forces stabilizes ions. According to Coulomb's law, the attractive forces formed between the atoms pull the atoms together, and this action is adversely replicated because of the similar charges between the same ions. This results in a very strong bond of atoms in the crystals. These highly intense forces attribute high melting points and rigid structures to these crystals.
  9. How does a Covalent Bond Work?
    A covalent bond, as the name suggests, is a crystal structure in which the electrons do not leave their orbits. Electrons, instead, are shared between two atoms. A shared electron in this way binds every two adjacent atoms. The bound atoms further share another electron from the atoms next to them and so on.
  10. How does a metallic Bond work?
    In metallic crystal formation, all the electrons from the atomic orbits break free from their paths. These clump together and form a cloud. This entire cluster is attracted by the positively charged centers of the atoms. This attraction holds the atoms together. All metals form crystals of this type. As the electrons are free to move in the compound, the crystals formed are highly conductive.
  11. How do Van Der Waals Bonds Work?
    A Van der Waals bond is a weak interaction between the atoms of a substance, resulting in soft-consistency crystals. The outer orbit of the atoms is completely filled with shared electrons, but their charge keeps transferring
  12. How does a hydrogen bond work?
    A hydrogen bond is formed when an atom of hydrogen is attracted toward the respective electrons of the corresponding atoms. This interferes with the crystal formation. A hydrogen atom, after being bound to another atom, is pulled toward the negative charge of a neighboring molecule. This confines the hydrogen atom between two negative charges. Hydrogen bonds are commonly found in ice crystals, where hydrogen atoms are packed tightly between two oxygen atoms.
  13. Who placed minerals into families of similar characteristics by anions?
    James D. Dana
  14. How many different Minerals are known?
    3,814
  15. What is a mineral?
    • Naturally Occurring
    • Inorganic
    • Crystalline Soild
    • Narrowly defined chemical composition
    • Characteristic Physical Properties
  16. Describe the Mafic Mineral group?
    Ferromagnesian silicates

    Generally dark in color, higher density
  17. Describe the Felsic Mineral group?
    Non ferromagnesian silicates

    Generally light in color, and lower in density.
  18. What gerneral properties are used to determine a mineral?
    • Luster
    • Color
    • Hardness
    • Cleavage
    • Streak
    • Specific Gravity
  19. What special properties are used to determine a mineral?
    • Magnetism
    • Double Refraction
    • Taste
    • Odor
    • Feel
    • Chemical Reaction

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