A&P ch 2

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babaghannouj
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129484
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A&P ch 2
Updated:
2012-01-21 18:24:47
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anatomy
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chemistry
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  1. matter
    anything that has mass and occupies space
  2. states of matter
    • solid - definite shape and volume
    • liquid - definite volume, changeable shape
    • gas - changeable shape and volume
    • plasma
  3. energy
    the capacity to do work or put matter into motion
  4. types of energy (2)
    • kinetic
    • potential
  5. forms of energy (4)
    • chemical - stored in bonds of chemical substances
    • electrical - movement of charged particles
    • mechanical - directly involved in moving matter
    • radiant or electromagnetic - wavelike properties (eg. visible light, x-rays)
  6. element
    • can't be broken down by ordinary chemical means
    • unique physical and chemical properties
  7. atom
    building blocks for elements
  8. major elements of the human body (4)
    • oxygen
    • carbon
    • hydrogen
    • nitrogen
  9. neutrons
    • no charge
    • mass = 1 amu
  10. protons
    • positive charge
    • mass = 1 amu
  11. electrons
    • negative charge
    • negligible mass (0 amu)
  12. identifying elements
    • atomic symbol - 1 or 2 letter chemical shorthand for each element
    • atomic number - number of protons in the nucleus
    • atomic mass - mass of protons + mass of neutrons
    • atomic weight - avg of mass numbers of all isotopes of the element
  13. isotope
    structural variations of elements that differ in the number of neutrons they contain
  14. molecule
    2 or more atoms bonded together
  15. compound
    • 2 or more different kinds of atoms bonded together
    • can be separated only by breaking bonds unlike mixtures
    • all are homogeneous
  16. mixture and the 3 types
    • 2 or more components physically intermixed, no chemical bonding between components, can be separated physically
    • solution
    • colloid
    • suspension
  17. solution
    • homogeneous mixture
    • solvent and solute
  18. colloid
    • emulsion
    • heterogeneous mixture
    • particles don't settle out
    • undergo sol-gel transformations
    • think mayo or jello
  19. suspension
    • heterogeneous mixture
    • solutes tend to settle out
    • think vinaigrette or blood
  20. chemical bonds
    • electrons occupy up to seven electron shells around nucleus
    • first shell is full with 2 electrons, all other shells are full at 8 (octet rule)
    • outermost shell is valence shell
  21. chemically inert element
    • stable and unreactive
    • outermost shell is full
  22. ionic bond
    • formed by transfer of electrons
    • attraction of opposite charges results in ionic bonding
    • ionic compounds form crystals instead of individual molecules
  23. anion
    negative charge because it has gained electron(s)
  24. cation
    • positive charge
    • has lost electron(s)
  25. covalent bond
    sharing of electrons
  26. nonpolar covalent bond
    • equal sharing of electrons
    • CO2
  27. polar covalent bond
    • unequal sharing of electrons
    • water
  28. hydrogen bonds
    • attractive force between electropositive hydrogen of one molecule and an electronegative atom of another molecule
    • common between dipoles like water
    • also act as intramolecular bonds, holding large molecules in 3D shape
  29. chemical reactions
    • synthesis - bonds are formed
    • decomposition - bonds are broken
    • exchange - bonds are made and broken
  30. inorganic compound
    • do not contain carbon
    • water, salts, many acids and bases
  31. organic compounds
    • contain carbon
    • usually large
    • covalently bonded
    • carbs, fats, proteins, nucleic acids
  32. properties of water (5)
    • high heat capacity - prevents sudden temp changes
    • high heat of vaporization - useful cooling mechanism
    • polar solvent properties - dissolves and dissociates ionic substances, body's major transport medium
    • reactivity - necessary part of hydrolysis and dehydration synthesis reactions
    • cushioning - protects some organs from trauma eg. cerebrospinal fluid
  33. salts
    • ionic compound that dissociates in water
    • contains cations other than H+ and anions other than OH-
    • ions conduct electrical currents in solution
    • ions play specialized roles in body functions
  34. acids
    • electrolyte
    • proton donor (release H+ in solution)
  35. bases
    • electrolyte
    • proton acceptors (take up H+ from solution)
    • bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) and ammonia (NH3) are important bases in the body
  36. pH concentration
    • pH = the negative logarithm of H+ in moles per liter
    • neutral - pH 7, eg water
    • acidic - more H+, lower pH,
    • alkaline - less H+ (or more OH-), higher pH
  37. pH change
    • interferes with cell function
    • can dmg living tissue
    • slight change in pH can be fatal
    • regulated by kidneys, lungs and buffers
  38. buffer
    • mixture of compounds that resist pH changes
    • convert strong (completely dissociated) acids or bases into weak (slightly dissociated) ones
  39. dehydration synthesis
    water molecule leaves creating bond between 2 monomers
  40. hydrolysis
    water molecule is added to polymer providing the necessary components for it to split into its monomers
  41. carbs
    • sugars and starches
    • contain C, H, and O
  42. 3 classes of carbs
    • monosaccharide
    • disaccharide
    • polysaccharide
  43. carb function
    • major source of cellular fuel (glucose)
    • structural molecules (ribose sugar in RNA)
  44. monosaccharides
    simple sugars containing 3-7 C atoms (CH2O)n
  45. disaccharides
    • double sugars
    • too lg to pass through cell membranes
  46. polysaccharides
    • polymers of simple sugard (starch, glycogen)
    • not very soluble
  47. lipids
    • contain C, H, O and sometimes P
    • insoluble in water
  48. types of lipids
    • triglycerides (neutral fats)
    • phospholipids
    • steroids
    • eicosanoids
  49. triglycerides
    • neutral
    • composed of 3 fatty acids bonded to a glycerol molecule
    • functions - energy storage, insulation, protection
    • fatty acids - saturated and unsaturated
  50. phospholipids
    • glycerol + 2 fatty acids and a phosphorus containing group
    • head and tail regions have different properties
    • cell membrane structure
  51. steroids
    • interlocking 4-ring structure
    • cholesterol, vitamin D, steroid hormones, bile salts
  52. eicosanoids
    • derived from fatty acid in cell membranes
    • prostaglandins
  53. proteins
    • polymers of amino acids
    • contain C, H, O, N and sometimes S and P
  54. peptide bond
    covalent bond formed when carboxyl group of one molecule reacts with amino group of another molecule, releasing water molecule
  55. structural levels of proteins
    • primary
    • secondary (alpha helix or beta sheet)
    • tertiary
    • quaternary
  56. fibrous proteins
    • strandlike, water insoluble, stable
    • keratin, elastin, collagen
  57. globular proteins
    • compact, spherical, water-soluble, sensitive to environmental change
    • specific functional regions (active sites)
    • antibodies, hormones, molecular chaperones, enzymes
  58. chaperonins
    • ensure quick and accurate folding and association of proteins
    • assist translocation of proteins and ions across membranes
    • promote breakdown of dmg or denatured proteins
    • help trigger immune response
    • produced in response to stressful stimuli eg O2 deprivation
  59. enzymes
    biological catalysts - lower activation energy speeding up reactions
  60. enzyme action
    • substrates bind to active site
    • energy is absorbed, bond is formed, water is released
    • product is released
    • product is dipeptide (peptide bond)
  61. nucleic acids
    • DNA & RNA
    • contain C, O, H, N and P
    • built of nucleotides - N containing base, pentose sugar and a phosphate group
  62. 4 bases of DNA
    • adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine
    • RNA has uracil instead of thymine
  63. DNA
    • double-stranded helical molecule in nucleus of cell
    • provides instructions for protein synthesis
    • replicates before cell division ensuring genetic continuity
  64. RNA
    • single-stranded molecule mostly active outside of nucleus
    • 3 kinds carry out the DNA orders for protein synthesis - mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA
  65. function of ATP
    phosphorylation - terminal phosphates are enzymatically transferred to and energize other molecules, these molecules then perform cellular work using the phosphate bond energy

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