Chemistry Exam

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Chemistry Exam
2012-01-24 07:52:32
chemistry exam

Studying for 2011 Grade 10 Chemistry Exam
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  1. Which of the following is an ionic compound?
    a) NH3
    b) PbSO4
    c) C6H12O6
    d) OCl2
    b) PBSO4
  2. Which of the following causes rust?
    A) water only
    B) water and oxygen
    C) salt only
    D) oxygen only
    B) water and oxygen
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. WHMIS requires employers to provide safety information through...
    a) product labels
    b) MSDS
    c) employee training
    d) all of the above
    d) all of the above
  4. What is the ending of the name of the compound with the formula Na2SO4?
    A) -ite
    B) -ide
    C) -ate
    D) -ane
    C) -ate
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. True or false: Non-metallic elements form anions, while metallic elements form cations.
  6. True or false: The element arsenic (atomic number 33) forms an anion with an ionic charge of +3.
  7. True or False: The reactants of a single displacement reaction are both elements.
  8. True or False: Dissolving sulfur dioxide gas in water produces a basic solution.
  9. True or False: Metals form positibely-charged ions by gaining electrons.
  10. Describe the make up of an atom.
    Th nucleus contains protons and neutrons in a heavy, dense positive core that contains the mass of the atom. Outside the nucleus, atoms orbit in defined orbits in the electron shells.
  11. Describe the difference between a Bohr-Rutherford diagrams and Lewis Dot Diagrams.
    Bohr-Rutherford diagrams visually show the make-up of the nucleus, and every electron orbit outside. A Lewis Dot diagram uses the symbol for the element, surronding by the valence shell only.
  12. What are the differenes between metals and non-metals?
    • Metals are solid, non-metals are solid/liquid/gas
    • Metals are conductors, non-metals are insulators
    • Metals are shiny, non-metals are dull
    • Metals have extra valence electrons, non-metals don't have enough
  13. Describe how chemical reactivity for elements works in terms of valence electrons.
    Physical and chemical properties are directly related to the number of valence electrons. Elements with the same number of valence electrons will react basically the same. Depending on how far the valence electron is from the nucleus (what electron shell), it becomes more and more reactive. The less electrons an element needs to lose/gain makes it more reactive.
  14. What is an ion?
    An atom that has gained or lost electrons.
  15. What is a cation?
    An atom that once had 1-3 electrons, but lost them to form a positive ion.
  16. What is an anion?
    An atom that once had 5-7 valence electrons, but gained more to form a negative ion.
  17. What is a positive ion and a negative ion called?
    • Positive Ion - cation
    • Negative Ion - anion
  18. Explain how ionic compounds form.
    • Metals commonly lose electrons to become cations. Non-metals commonly gain electrons to become anion.
    • These two opposites attract, and electrons are transferred between the two. A compound is formed.
  19. What happens if you dissolve an ionic compound?
    It will dissociate into its ions, and be able to conduct electricity.
  20. How do you name ionic compounds?
    The name of the metal element is written first, unchanged. The name of the non-metal element is written second with the ending changed to "ide". eg. Lithium oxide
  21. How do you name ionic compounds with multi-valent elements?
    The name of the metal is written first with a roman numeral in brackets afterward, indicating the positive charge of the metal. The non-metal ending is "ide".
  22. What does WHMIS stand for?
    Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System
  23. What does MSDS stand for?
    Material Safety Data Sheet
  24. Name the nine polyatomic ions and their formulas.
    • Nitrate ion NO3-
    • Nitrite ion NO2-
    • Hydroxide OH-
    • Hydrogen carbonate (bicarbonate) HCO3-
    • Chlorate ion ClO3-
    • Carbonate ion CO32-
    • Sulfate ion SO42-
    • Phosphate ion PO43-
    • Ammonium ion NH4+

  25. Name the polyatomic ions that go with the following formulas.
    • Nitrate ion
    • Nitrite ion
    • Hydroxide
    • Hydrogen carbonate (bicarbonate)
    • Chlorate ion
    • Carbonate ion
    • Sulfate ion
    • Phosphate ion
    • Ammonium ion
  26. How do you name a polyatomic compound?
    Name the metal first, unchanged. Name the polyatomic ion second, unchanged. (If it is ammonium, ammonium comes first, then the metal changes to an ending of "ide")
  27. What is a molecular compound?
    A neutral group of atoms, called molecules, are formed when non-metal elements chemically join together.
  28. What is the difference between a molecular and an ionic compound?
    • Ionic compounds dissociate when dissolved, moleculars do not
    • Ion compounds conduct electricity, moleculars do not
    • Molecular - non-metals, Ionic - metal & non-metal
    • Ionic and molecular compounds are neutral
  29. How are molecular compounds formed?
    They are formed through the sharing of electrons in the valence shell.
  30. How is the number of bonds between atoms determined?
    Through the 'combining capacity'. This is also how many electrons an atom needs to gian to complete its valence shell.
  31. Name the numerical prefixes up to ten.
    Mono, di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa, hepta, octa, nona, deca
  32. How are molecular compounds named?
    The element farthest to the left side of the periodic table is written first, unchanged. The second element is changed to "ide". Prefixes are used on both to allude to the number of atoms in the compound (mono is only used on the second element!).
  33. What is a binary acid?
    A molecular compound containing two elements, one of which is always hydrogen. Ions are produced when the acid is dissolved in water. Hydrogen is the positive ion, and therefore always written first in the equation.
  34. How are binary acids named?
    Normally if it is a gaseous binary compound. If it is in its aqueos acid name, the prefix "hydro" is used, with the ending changed from "ide" to "ic". eg. hydrogen fluoride -> hydrofluoric
  35. What is an oxyacid?
    An acid containing more than two elements, one of which is hydrogen, the other oxygen. The other element must be a non-metal. They are related to the polyatomic ions.
  36. How are oxyacids named?
    There is no prefix, the non-metal element is changed to an "ic" ending. eg. H3PO4 -> phosphoric acid
  37. Name the following oxyacids.
    HNO3 (aq)
    HNO2 (aq)
    • HNO3 (aq) -> nitric acid
    • HNO2 (aq) -> nitrous acid
  38. What is a base?
    An ionic compound containing 3 elements, two of which are hydrogen and oxygen in the form of hydroxide (OH-).
  39. How are bases named?
    The metal name is first, unchanged. The second part is hydroxide. eg. LiOH -> lithium hydroxide
  40. What is the formula for dinitrogen tetroxide?
  41. How do you explain a chemical reaction?
    Using either a word equation (reactant and product names) or a chemical equation (balanced reactant and product formulas).
  42. What are the symbols for the followings states of matter used in word equations?
    a) solid
    b) gas
    c) liquid
    d) aqueous
    • a) (s)
    • b) (g)
    • c) (l)
    • d) (aq)
  43. Balance the following chemical equation.
    _FeS2 + _O2 -> _Fe2O3 + _SO2
    4FeS2 + 11O2 -> 2Fe2O3 + 8SO2
  44. What is the Law of Conservation of Mass?
    total mass of reactants = total mass of products
  45. Balance the following chemcial equation.
    _C2H2 + _O2 -> _CO2 + _H2O
    2C2H2 + 5O2 -> 4CO2 + 2H2O
  46. What is a synthesis reaction?
    The formation of one product from two or more reactants (which can be elements or compounds). eg. A + B -> AB
  47. What is a decomposition reaction?
    The splitting of one reactant molecule into two or more products. eg. AB -> A + B
  48. What is a single displacement reaction?
    A reaction between a single element and a single compound, where the single element repalces another element in the compound. eg. A + BC -> AC + B
  49. What is a double displacement reaction?
    Involves two compounds in which the metals switch places. eg. AB + CD -> AD + CB
  50. What is a neutralization reaction?
    This is a special type of double displacement involving an acid and a base, where the products are always a salt and water. eg. HCl + NaOH -> NaCl + H2O
  51. What is a combustion reaction?
    A synthesis reaction that involves burning a carbon-based fuel (ex. hydrocarbons) with oxygen. Combustion is either complete or incomplete.
  52. What is a complete combustion reaction?
    A reaction where there is excess oxygen, therefore all the fuel is used. The only products are carbon dioxide and water. eg. C3H8 + 5O2 -> 3CO2 + 4H2O
  53. What is an incomplete combustion reaction?
    A reaction where there is limited oxygen, therefore there is not enough to completely burn the fuel. The products are water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and solid carbon particles (soot). eg. 2C3H8 + 7O2 -> 2CO2 + 8H2O + 2CO + 2C
  54. What is the pH scale?
    A scale that measures how acidic or basic a solution is, ranging from 0 - 14. This scale is logarithmic, meaning that a difference of 1 pH is a 10-fold difference in acid concentration.
  55. What determines a solution's pH level?
    The concentration of H+ or OH- ions. A strong acid will have a high concentration of hydrogen ions, and a low pH level. Bases are the opposite. A solution with a pH of 7 is neutral because the ion concentrations are equal and balance each other out.
  56. Balance the following chemcial equation.
    _H2O + _NaOH -> _Na2SO4 + _H2O
    H2SO4 + 2NaOH -> Na2SO4 + 2H2O
  57. What are some sources of acid rain?
    Industrial plants, coal fire plants, smelting operations, smokestacks emitting sulphur dioxide, cars
  58. What is the definition of an
    a) acid
    b) base
    • a) gives off protons, low pH level
    • b) accepts protons, high pH level
  59. Explain the circumstances of the experiment at Lake 223.
    In 1977, acid was slowly added to a lake to explore the effects of acid rain on water ecosystems. In the seven years it ran, the pH level dropped from 6.1 to 5, with organisms slowly dying out. In the end, there were no organisms left and the lake was crystal clear.
  60. Select the correct formula/chemical name combination.
    A) Sn2SO4 - tin (II) sulfate
    B) PbCO3 - lead (IV) carbonate
    C) FeClO3 - iron (III) chlorate
    D) Cu3PO4 - copper (I) phosphate
    D) Cu3PO4 - copper (I) phosphate
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  61. Which of the following is not an example of a covalently bonded molecule?
    A) Al(OH)3
    B) F2
    C) N2O2
    D) ClO3
    E) C6H12O6
    A) Al(OH)3
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  62. What is the family of elements called that includes Be and Ca?
    Alkaline Earth Metals
  63. What is a diatomic compound?
    These are compounds made up of two identical atoms. eg. F2, O2 etc.

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