Card Set Information
People with astonishing memory abilities
Psychologists define memory as
the retention of information or experience over time.
The first step in memory is____, the process by which information gets into memory storage.
also affects memory encoding.
refers in to a continuum from shallow to intermediate to deep, with deeper processing producing better memory.
Levels of processing
the number of different connections that are made around a stimulus at any given level of memory encoding
Physical features are analyzed.
Stimulus is recognized and labeled.
Semantic, meaningful, symbolic characteristics are used
The number of different connections made around a stimulus at any given level of encoding
Relating material to your own experience
Theory that memory for pictures is better than memory for words
Why is picture stronger than words for memory?
Because you store images as word and picture
How information is retained over time & represented in memory
Theory that memory involves 3 separate items
3 items in the theory of memory storage
Sensory, short-term, long-term
What holds information from the world for an instant?
Visual sensory memory
Limited-capacity memory, usually only 30 seconds
Number of digits an individual can report back in order after a single presentation of them
Grouping or packing information that exceeds the 7-2 memory span into higher-order units
Conscious repetition of information
Atkinson & Shiffrin's term fails to capture
The dynamic way short-term memory functions
Three-part system that allows us to hold information temporarily as we perform cognitive tasks
In working memory, specialized to briefly store speech-based information
Stores visual and spatial information, including visual imagery
Visuospatial working memory
Integrates information not only from the phonogical loop & visuospatial working memory but also long-term
Relatively permanent type of memory that stores huge amounts of information for a long time
Divisions of long-term memory
Explicit and implicit
Conscious recollection of information, such as specific facts, & information that can be verbally connected
Two subtypes of explicit memory
Episodic and semantic
Retention of information about where, when, what
Person's knowledge about the word
In amnesia, ________ is functioning and __________ isn't
Memory in which behavior is affected by prior experience
Other word for implicit memory
Type of implicit memory process that involves memory for skills
Type of conditioning involved in implict memory
Activation of information people already have in storage to help them remember new information better and faster
Preexisting mental concept or framework that helps people to organize and interpret information
Schema for an event, often containing information about physical features, people, and occurences
Theory that memory is stored throughout the brain in connections among neurons
Connectionism, or parallel distributed processing
View that memories are not large knowledge structures but like electrical impulses
Researchers have proposed this concept to explain how memory functions at the neuron level.
Temporal lobes / memory
explicit memory, priming
explicit memory priming, memory consolidation
Nerves in the nose send information about smells to the primary olfactory cortex in the brain, which links directly to the
amygdala and hippocampus.
Thus, smells have a superhighway to the brain structures involved in
emotion and memory consolidation
The memory process that occurs when information that was retained in memory comes out of storage
The tendency to recall the items at the beginning and end of a list more readily than those in the middle.
Serial Position Effect
better recall for items at the beginning of a list
The primacy effect
better recall for items at the end of the list.
The recency effect
In primacy effect, the first few items in the list are easily remembered
because they are rehearsed more or receive more elaborative processing
In recency effect, the last several items are remembered for different reasons.
they might still be in working memory or they were just encountered
Memory task in which the individual has to retrieve previously learned information, as on essay tests.
Memory task in which the individual only has to identify (recognize) learned items, as on multiple-choice tests
Principle states that information present at the time of encoding or learning tends to be effective as a retrieval cue
Encoding specificity principle
People remember better when they attempt to recall information in the same context in which they learned it
A special form of episodic memory, consisting of a person's recollections of his or her life experiences.
The most abstract level of autobiographical memory
life time periods
Middle level in the hierarchy of autobiographical memory
The most concrete level in autobiographical memory
describing life experiences that go from bad to better
individuals who describe redemptive stories are more
selfdefining memories go from good to bad
Memory of emotionally significant events that people often recall with more accuracy and vivid imagery than everyday events.
Forgetting when something is so painful or anxiety laden that remembering it is intolerable
when the information was never entered into long-term memory
Causes of retrieval failure include problems with the
information in storage, the effects of time, personal reasons for remembering or forgetting, and the brain's condition
The theory that people forget not because memories are lost from storage but because other information gets in the way of what they want to remember.
Situation in which material that was learned earlier disrupts the recall of material that was learned later
Interference proactive interference
Situation in which material that was learned later disrupts the retrieval of information that was learned earlier.
Theory stating that when we learn something new, a neurochemical memory trace forms, but over time this trace disintegrates; suggests that the passage of time always increases forgetting
A type of effortful retrieval that occurs when we are confident that we know something but cannot quite pull it out of memory.
tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) phenomenon
Remembering information from the past.
Remembering information about doing something in the future; includes memory for intentions.
A memory disorder that affects the retention of new information and events.
Memory loss for a segment of the past but not for new events.