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  1. Sound
    Begins with the vibration of an object.
  2. Pitch
    Pitch is the relative highness or lowness that we hear in a sound.
  3. Tone
    A sound that has a definite pitch.
  4. Interval
    The “distance” between any two tones.
  5. Octave
    • A special type of interval where the frequency of a tone is half or double another.
    • The sounds will sound alike because of this.
  6. Pitch Range or Range
    The distance between the lowest and highest tones that a voice or instrument can produce.
  7. Pianissimo
    • Abbreviation: pp
    • Meaning: very soft
  8. Piano
    • Abbreviation: p
    • Meaning: soft
  9. Mezzo Piano
    • Abbreviation: mp
    • Meaning: moderately soft
  10. Mezzo Forte
    • Abbreviation: mf
    • Meaning: moderately loud
  11. Forte
    • Abbreviation: f
    • Meaning: loud
  12. Fortissimo
    • Abbreviation: ff
    • Meaning: very loud
  13. What is the term and meaning of the following symbol?
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    • Term: decrescendo or diminuendo
    • Meaning: gradually softer
  14. What is the term and meaning of the highlited symbol?
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    • Term: crescendo
    • Meaning: gradually louder
  15. Improvisation
    Music created at the same time as it is performed.
  16. Name the three vocal ranges for women from highest to lowest.
    • Soprano
    • Mezzo-soprano
    • Alto (or contralto)
  17. Name the three vocal ranges for men from highest to lowest.
    • Tenor
    • Baritone
    • Bass
  18. Name the main six categories of western instruments.
    • String
    • Woodwind
    • Brass
    • Percussion
    • Keyboard
    • Electronic
  19. Name a string instrument.
    • Guitar
    • Violin
  20. Name a woodwind instrument.
    • Flute
    • Clarinet
  21. Name a brass instrument.
    • Trumpet
    • Trombone
  22. Name a percussion instrument.
    • Bass Drum
    • Cymbals
  23. Name a keyboard instrument.
    • Organ
    • Piano
  24. Name an electronic instrument.
  25. Who leads orchestras and bands?
    A conductor.
  26. What does a conductor do for a performance?
    They coordinate the performers and shapes the interpretation of a musical composition.
  27. What is the name of the thin stick a conductor wields?
    A baton.
  28. What does the conductor use the baton for?
    The baton is used to beat time and indicate pulse and tempo.
  29. Who is the concertmaster and what do they do?
    • The principal first violinist.
    • They play solo violin passages and coordinate the bowing of string instruments.
  30. What is pizzicato?
    Pizzicato is a string technique where the musician plucks the string.
  31. How is the string technique of a double stop performed?
    • By drawing the bow across two strings.
    • There is also a triple stop and quadruple stop, where the strings are played almost – but not quite – together.
  32. Vibrato
    A string technique which produces a throbbing, expressive tone.
  33. Mute
    • A device used to veil or muffle the tone of an instrument.
    • For strings, it’s a clamp that fits onto the bridge.
    • For brass instruments, it’s a funnel-shaped piece of wood, metal, or plastic that fits into the bell
  34. Tremolo
    Rapid repetition of a tone, produced in string instruments by quick up-and-down strokes of the bow.
  35. Harmonics
    Very high-pitched whistle like tones, produced in bowed string instruments by lightly touching the string at certain points while bowing.
  36. Tape Studio
    Studio with tape recorders and other equipment used to create electronic music by modifying and combining recorded sounds
  37. Synthesizer
    System of electronic components that can generate, modify, and control sound; used to compose music and perform it
  38. Beat
    Beat is a regular recurrent pulsation that divides music into equal units of time.
  39. Rhythm
    Ordered flow of music through time; the pattern of durations of notes and silences in music
  40. Meter
    The organization of beats into regular groups.
  41. Measure
    A group containing a fixed number of beats.
  42. Duple Meter
    2 beats to the measure
  43. Downbeat
    The first, or stressed beat.
  44. Triple Meter
    3 beats to the measure.
  45. Quadruple Meter
    4 beats to the measure
  46. Upbeat
    An unaccented pulse preceding the downbeat.
  47. Sextuple Meter
    6 beats to a measure
  48. Quintuple Meter
    5 beats to a measure
  49. Septuple Meter
    7 beats to a measure
  50. Accent
    Emphasis of a note, which may result from it’s being louder, longer, or higher in pitch than the notes near it.
  51. Syncopation
    When an accented note comes when we normally would not expect one.
  52. Tempo
    The speed of the beat
  53. What is the higlighted part of this image called?
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    Tempo indication
  54. Name 5 tempo indications
    • Largo
    • Andante
    • Moderato
    • Allegro
    • Vivace
  55. What is the indication for a gradual quickening of tempo?
  56. What is the indication for a gradual slowing down of tempo?
  57. Metronome
    An apparatus that produces ticking sounds at a desired musical speed.
  58. Notation
    A system of writing music so that specific pitches and rhythms can be communicated.
  59. Staff
    A set of five horizontal lines.
  60. What are the highlighted parts of the following image called?
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    Ledger Lines
  61. Cleff
    Placed at the beginning of each line and space.
  62. Grand Staff
    A combination of treble and bass staves.
  63. What is used to show how long a note should last?
    A stem or flag on the note.
  64. What is a beam?
    Several flags joined together
  65. What is used to increase a note’s duration by half?
    A dot.
  66. What is used to increase the duration of a note by the duration of the following note?
    A tie.
  67. How is a duration of silence notated?
    With a rest.
  68. What is a time signature used for?
    A time signature shows the meter of a piece.
  69. Score
    Shows the music for each instrumental or vocal category in a performance.
  70. Melody
    A series of tones that add up to a recognizable whole; usually the most memorable part of a song.
  71. When a melody moves by small intervals, what are these intervals called?
  72. When a melody moves by large intervals, what are these intervals called?
  73. Climax
    Highest tone or emotional focal point in a melody or a larger musical composition.
  74. Notes of a melody played in a smooth, connected style are an example of what?
  75. Notes of a melody played in a short, detached manner are an example of what?
  76. Many melodies are made up of shorter parts called what?
  77. What is a cadence?
    A cadence is a resting place at the end of a phrase – a point of arrival.
  78. What is an incomplete cadence?
    A cadence which sets up expectations.
  79. What is a complete cadence?
    A cadence with a sense of finality.
  80. Theme
    Melody that serves as the starting point for an extended piece of music.
  81. Harmony
    Refers to the way chords are constructed and how they follow each other.
  82. What is a chord?
    A chord is a combination of three or more tones sounded at once.
  83. Progression
    A specific series of chords.
  84. Consonance
    A stable tone combination, a point of arrival, rest, and resolution
  85. Dissonance
    • A tone combination that is unstable.
    • It’s tension demands an onward motion to a stable chord.
  86. Resolution
    A dissonance has it’s resolution when it moves to a consonance.
  87. What is produced when a dissonance moves to a consonance?
    A resolution.
  88. What is the most basic chord?
    A triad.
  89. What is a triad based on the fifth note of a scale called?
    The Dominant Chord.
  90. What is it called when the individual notes of a chord are sounded one after another?
    A broken chord or arpeggio.
  91. Keynote (aka Tonic)
    Central tone of a melody or larger piece of music. When a piece is in the key of C major, for example, C is the keynote.
  92. Key or Tonality
    Central note, scale and chord within a piece, in relationship to which all other tones in the composition are heard.
  93. Scale
    Series of pitches arranged in order from low to high or high to low.
  94. Major Scale
    A specific pattern of whole and half steps.
  95. Half Step
    Smallest interval traditionally used in western music for example, the interval between ti and do.
  96. Whole Step
    Interval twice as large as the half step.
  97. Minor Scale
    A specific pattern of whole and half steps.
  98. Major Key
    Music based on a major scale
  99. Minor Key
    Music based on a minor scale
  100. What is the highlighted part of this image called?
    Image Upload
    Time Signature
  101. What is the highlited part of this image called?
    Image Upload
    Key Signature
  102. Chromatic Scale
    Scale including all twelve tones of the octave; each tone is a half step away from the next one.
  103. Modulation
    Shift from one key to another within the same piece
  104. Tonic or Home Key
    Central key of a piece of music, usually both beginning and ending the piece, regardless of how many other keys are included.
  105. Musical Texture
    Number of layers of sound that are heard at once, what kind of layers they are, and how they are related to each other.
  106. Name three musical textures.
    • Monophonic
    • Polyphonic
    • Homophonic
  107. Monophonic
    Single melodic line without accompaniment
  108. Unison
    Performance of a single melodic line by more than one instrument or voice at the same pitch or in different octaves.
  109. Polyphonic
    Performance of two or more melodic lines of relatively equal interest at the same time
  110. Counterpoint
    Technique of combining two or more melodic lines into a meaningful whole.
  111. Imitation
    Presentation of a melodic idea by one voice or instrument that is immediately followed by it’s restatement by another voice or instrument, as in a round.
  112. Homophonic
    Music in which one main melody is accompanied by chords.
  113. Form
    Organization of musical ideas in time
  114. Repetition
    Reiteration of a motive, phrase, or section, often used to create a sense of unity.
  115. Variation
    Changing some features of a musical idea while retaining others.
  116. Contrast
    Striking differences of pitch, dynamics, rhythm, and tempo that provide variety and change of mood.
  117. Three-Part Form (A B A)
    Form that can be represented as statement (A) contrast (B) and return to statement (A)
  118. Binary Form or Two-Part Form (A B)
    Form that can be represented as statement (A) and counterstatement (B)
Card Set:
2012-01-22 02:51:52
Music Appreciation Roger Kamien McGrew Hill

Vocab from part 1 of Music Appreciation Roger Kamien McGrew Hill
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