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2012-01-22 19:48:25

Ch.3 Anatomy
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  1. Nucleolus
    (Small Nucleus)
    • Dense body of RNA and Protein
    • Found in certain chromosomes
    • Factory for Ribosomes
    • Cell may contain more than one (especially if the cell is producing proteins)
  2. Vesicles
    Transports substances in and out of the cell
  3. Cilia

    • Cilia: Tiny hair like parts that are on the Epithelial cells
    • Move fluids/substances across cell surfaces
    • Usually found in the respiratory tract and Fallopian tubes
    • Flagella: Single mobile thread like projection (tail)
    • Larger than Cilia
    • Found in sperm cells (allows movement)
  4. Centrosome
    • Contain centrioles composed of microtubules
    • Lie at right angles to each other in the cytoplasm near the Golgi Apparatus and Nucleus
    • Aid in cell reproduction
    • Organize spindle fibers during cell division
  5. Membrane Proteins
    • 55% of the weight of the cell membrane
    • Integral- most span the entire cell membrane
    • Globular: more compact, serves as a channel for transport
    • Fibrous: more tightly coiled, rod like, serve as receptors
    • Peripheral - associated with the inner or outer surface fo the cell membrane
    • May function as enzymes
  6. Cholesteral
    (Cell Membrane)
    Embedded in the interior to make the membrane less permeable to water soluble substances and to help stabilize the membrane.
  7. 2 Layers of Phospholipid Bilayer
    Hydrophilic- (water-loving) "heads" contains phosphates, forms the "Surface" of the cell membrane

    Hydrophobic- (water-fearing) "tails", made up of fatty acids, forms the "Interior" of the cell membrane
  8. Cell (Plasma) Membrane
    • Outer layer that contains the materials within the cell
    • Selective permeable (allows some things calcium potassium, while rejecting others)
    • Phospholipid Bilayer (Hydrophilic...water-loving...heads & Hydrophobic....water-fearing...tails).
  9. Lysosomes
    • Membranous sacs that contain digestive enzymes
    • "Garbage disposals" of the cell
    • Vescicles but with a specific purpose of removing garbage
  10. Mitochondria
    • Contains a small amount of DNA that provides info for making a few kinds of proteins and specialized RNA
    • "Power house" of cells / releases energy from food to form ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)
    • Divide in half (fission) and grow back to former size if more are needed.
  11. Ribosomes
    • Composed of protein and RNA
    • "Protein Factories" protein is synthesized here
    • More abundant in the Rough ER (Endoplasmic Reticulum), but also some are free floating in the cytoplasm.
  12. Golgi Apparatus
    • Receives molecules from the ER
    • Has membranous sacs called Cisternae
    • Refines packages and delivers the proteins synthesized by the ribosomes
    • Includes processing and packaging of lysosome enzymes
  13. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
    • Communicates with the cell membrane, nuclear envelope and certain organelles
    • Provides a tubular transport system for molecules throughout the cell
    • 2 types: Smooth ER - no ribosomes, has enzymes for both lipid and carb. synthesis. Rough ER - contains ribosomes, site of protein synthesis.
  14. Cytoplasm
    • Material between cell membrane and Nucleus
    • Contains cytosol, 90% water, contains amino acids, simple sugars and other substances to manufacture larger molecules.
    • Contains thousands of enzymes
    • Functions: Site where most cellular activities occur (Metabolism). Site where food molecules are received, processed and used.