ankle by grasping toes in palm of your hand. Strike Achilles tendon just above
the heel at ankle malleolus. Normal: plantar flexion of foot
Inability to communicate through speech,
writing, or signs because of an injury to or disease in certain areas of the
cannot understand written or
understands written and verbal speech by cannot
write of speak appropriately
can be tested by stroking the sole of the foot,
beginning at midheel and moving upward and lateral to the toes. A positive
Babinski’s occurs when there is dorsiflexion of the great toe and fanning of
the other toes.
Flex client’s arm up to 45 deg at elbow with
palms down. Place your thumb in antecubital fossa at base of biceps tendon and
your fingers over biceps muscle. Strike triceps tendon with reflex hammer.
Normal: Flexion of arm at elbow
included in assessment of motor function because it coorditnates muscular activity, maintains balance and equilibrium and control posture.
is repeated contraction of muscles (usually the calf muscles or the wrist flexor muscles) when the muscles are stretched manually (such as by ankle dorsiflexion or wrist extension). Sustained clonus is when this occurs repeatedly as long as the stretch is maintained.
state of being in a coma, unresponsive, protective reflexes absent, pupils fixed, novoluntary movement
complete assessment involves the 12 cranial nerves in order of their number.
that involves the arms and legs being held straight out, the toes being pointed downward, and the head and neck being arched backwards. The muscles are tightened and held rigidly. This type of posturing usually means there has been severe damage to the brain.
Is a posture is an abnormal posturing in
which a person is stiff with bent arms, clenched fists, and legs held out straight. The arms are bent in toward the body and the wrists and fingers are
bent and held on the chest.
Deep tendon reflex
elicited by mildly stretching a muscle and
tapping the tendon. Most common are knee jerk and patellar reflex
soft, not erect
Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)
a quick rating of neurological status based on three components: state of consciousness (based on eyes being opened and tracking events), state of motor control
(based on responses to verbal commands and (if nonresponsive to instructions) responses to painful stimuli, and state of langauge functioning (oriented and able to meanfully answer questions)
Muscle weakness on one side of the body.
on one side of the body.
also called hunchback, an exaggeration of the posterior curvature of thoracic spine. This is common to
Level of consciousness (LOC)
exists aling a continuum from full awakerning, alertness, and cooperation to unresponsiveness to any form of external stimuli.
or swayback, an increase lumbar curvature.
a meningeal sign with one leg with hip flexed, pain in
back with extension of knee
a meningeal sign: flexion of legs and thighs when
neck is flexed
is assessed by putting selected muscle groups through passive range of motion.
decrease awareness of self and surroundings, sleepy
client’s recognition of person, place and time
(oriented x 3)
defined as loss of the ability to move a body part.
condition of paralysis at the lower half of body
slight or partial paralysis
paralysis on all four extremities
test of cerebral function and balance.
-The person is asked to
stand quietly with feet together and hands at the side and to attain
equilibrium. The following step is to evaluate if the per-son can close his or
her eyes and maintain equilibrium without swaying or falling. The next part of
the evaluation is to assess if the person can lift the hands to shoulder height
and then close eyes without hands drifting downward. If these two evaluations
are completed successfully, the balance and cerebellar function are intact.
Lateral spinal curvature
responds to painful stimuli, present protective
reflexes, no converstaion
responds to stimuli (moans and groans), never
fully awake, confused, conversation is unclear
test for assessing coordination
Have the client extend arms out to the sides and
touch each forefinger alternately to the nose. First with eyes open, then with eyes closed
For deep tendon reflex. Flex arm at elbow, holding arm across chest or hold upper arm horizontally and allow lower arm to go limp. Strike triceps tendon just above elbow. Normal Reflex: extension at elbow