Unit 3 examination neuro and muscular(1).txt

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Unit 3 examination neuro and muscular(1).txt
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2012-01-22 00:27:34
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neuro muscular
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unit 3
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  1. Achilles
    • Sitting position, slightly dorsiflex client’s
    • ankle by grasping toes in palm of your hand. Strike Achilles tendon just above
    • the heel at ankle malleolus. Normal: plantar flexion of foot
  2. Aphasia
    • Inability to communicate through speech,
    • writing, or signs because of an injury to or disease in certain areas of the
    • brain.
  3. sensory/receptive aphasia
    • cannot understand written or
    • verbal speech
  4. expressive aphasia
    • understands written and verbal speech by cannot
    • write of speak appropriately
  5. Babinski reflex
    • can be tested by stroking the sole of the foot,
    • beginning at midheel and moving upward and lateral to the toes. A positive
    • Babinski’s occurs when there is dorsiflexion of the great toe and fanning of
    • the other toes.
  6. Biceps
    • Flex client’s arm up to 45 deg at elbow with
    • palms down. Place your thumb in antecubital fossa at base of biceps tendon and
    • your fingers over biceps muscle. Strike triceps tendon with reflex hammer.
    • Normal: Flexion of arm at elbow
  7. cerebrall function
    included in assessment of motor function because it coorditnates muscular activity, maintains balance and equilibrium and control posture.
  8. Clonus
    is repeated contraction of muscles (usually the calf muscles or the wrist flexor muscles) when the muscles are stretched manually (such as by ankle dorsiflexion or wrist extension). Sustained clonus is when this occurs repeatedly as long as the stretch is maintained.
  9. Comatose
    state of being in a coma, unresponsive, protective reflexes absent, pupils fixed, novoluntary movement
  10. Cranial nerves
    complete assessment involves the 12 cranial nerves in order of their number.

    • Mneumonic: oh, oh, oh,
    • to touch and feel a girl’s vagina, super heaven!

    Olfactory, optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, abducens, facial, auditory, glossopharyngeal, vagus, spinal accessory, and hypoglossal
  11. Crepitus
    • Grating, grinding, or popping sound or feeling
    • made when a joint is moved
  12. Decerebrate
    • is a posture is an abnormal body posture
    • that involves the arms and legs being held straight out, the toes being pointed downward, and the head and neck being arched backwards. The muscles are tightened and held rigidly. This type of posturing usually means there has been severe damage to the brain.
  13. Decorticate
    • Is a posture is an abnormal posturing in
    • which a person is stiff with bent arms, clenched fists, and legs held out straight. The arms are bent in toward the body and the wrists and fingers are
    • bent and held on the chest.
  14. Deep tendon reflex
    • elicited by mildly stretching a muscle and
    • tapping the tendon. Most common are knee jerk and patellar reflex
  15. fasciculation
    muscle twitching
  16. flaccid
    soft, not erect
  17. Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)
    • a quick rating of neurological status based on three components: state of consciousness (based on eyes being opened and tracking events), state of motor control
    • (based on responses to verbal commands and (if nonresponsive to instructions) responses to painful stimuli, and state of langauge functioning (oriented and able to meanfully answer questions)
  18. Hemiparesis
    Muscle weakness on one side of the body.
  19. Hemiplegi
  20. Paralysis
    on one side of the body.
  21. kyphosis
    • also called hunchback, an exaggeration of the posterior curvature of thoracic spine. This is common to
    • older adult.
  22. Level of consciousness (LOC)
    exists aling a continuum from full awakerning, alertness, and cooperation to unresponsiveness to any form of external stimuli.
  23. Lordosis
    or swayback, an increase lumbar curvature.
  24. Kernig sign
    • a meningeal sign with one leg with hip flexed, pain in
    • back with extension of knee
  25. Brudzinski sign
    • a meningeal sign: flexion of legs and thighs when
    • neck is flexed
  26. muscle tone
    is assessed by putting selected muscle groups through passive range of motion.
  27. obtunded
    decrease awareness of self and surroundings, sleepy
  28. oriented
    • client’s recognition of person, place and time
    • (oriented x 3)
  29. paralysis
    defined as loss of the ability to move a body part.
  30. paraplegia
    condition of paralysis at the lower half of body
  31. paresis
    slight or partial paralysis
  32. quadriplegia
    paralysis on all four extremities
  33. Romberg test
    test of cerebral function and balance.

    • -The person is asked to
    • stand quietly with feet together and hands at the side and to attain
    • equilibrium. The following step is to evaluate if the per-son can close his or
    • her eyes and maintain equilibrium without swaying or falling. The next part of
    • the evaluation is to assess if the person can lift the hands to shoulder height
    • and then close eyes without hands drifting downward. If these two evaluations
    • are completed successfully, the balance and cerebellar function are intact.
  34. Scoliosis
    Lateral spinal curvature
  35. semicomatose
    • responds to painful stimuli, present protective
    • reflexes, no converstaion
  36. stuporous
    • responds to stimuli (moans and groans), never
    • fully awake, confused, conversation is unclear
  37. test for assessing coordination
    • Have the client extend arms out to the sides and
    • touch each forefinger alternately to the nose. First with eyes open, then with eyes closed
  38. triceps
    For deep tendon reflex. Flex arm at elbow, holding arm across chest or hold upper arm horizontally and allow lower arm to go limp. Strike triceps tendon just above elbow. Normal Reflex: extension at elbow
  39. Components of physical examination
    • -general inspection
    • -palpation
    • -range of motion
    • -muscle tone and strength

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