Biology Midterm

Card Set Information

Author:
Melwani
ID:
129681
Filename:
Biology Midterm
Updated:
2012-01-22 15:12:57
Tags:
bio
Folders:

Description:
Vocabulary for Bio Midterm
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user Melwani on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. population:
    all individuals of one species in a specific area
  2. community:
    all populations in a specific area
  3. ecosystem
    a community interacting with its environment
  4. biosphere
    • all the regions on earth that holds life
    • --> land, water, air
  5. organisms
    • require energy and mertials to sustain their organization and activities
    • nutrients
    • producers
    • consumers
  6. nutrients
    • are required for growth and survival
    • cycle throughout the earth unlike energy (one direction)
  7. producers (autotrophs)
    • make their own food
    • get energy from the sun
    • ex. plants, algae, cyno bacteria
  8. consumers (heterotrophs)
    • eat other organisms to get energy
    • cant create food themselves
  9. receptors
    respond to stimulation
  10. responses
    keep internal conditions within ranges that cells can tolerate (homeostasis)
  11. Properties of Life
    • sense change
    • growth and developement
    • require energy
    • organization
  12. 3 Domains
    • archaea
    • bacteria
    • eukarya
  13. Species
    interbreeding population that can produce fertile offspring
  14. Genus and Species Name
    • Homo Sapiens
    • Genus-Species
  15. Carbon
    • basis of life since its really versatile
    • 1 Triple + 1 Single OR
    • 1 Double + 1 Double OR
    • 1 Double + 2 Singles OR
    • 4 Singles
  16. Carboxyl Group
    COOH
  17. Alcohols
    • OH/O-H at the end
    • ex. C3H5(OH)3 = Alcohol
  18. Amino Acids
    • NH2CH2COOH
    • NH2 = Amino Group
    • CH2 = what makes Amino Acids different
    • COOH = carboxyl group
  19. catalysts
    speed up reactions
  20. Cohesive
    • water is ~
    • sticks to other water molecules
  21. adhesive
    • Water is ~
    • it sticks to other molecules that are not water
  22. pH
    • measure of how many hydrogen ions are in a solution
    • hydrogen ions (H+)
    • scale:
    • 1-6 = acidic
    • 7 = neutral
    • 8-14 = basic
    • most chemical reactions in living things occur between pHs 6-8
  23. Acid
    • compound that produces Hydrogen ions (H+) in water
    • ex. battery acids, lemon juice, vinegar
    • pH scale - 1-6
  24. buffer
    • prevents rapid change in pH
    • helps maintain homeostasis
  25. isotope
    more neutrons
  26. ions
    have a +/- charge
  27. dehydration synthesis
    • another word for condensation
    • H2O is removed when carbohydrates combine
    • combines monomers to form polymers
  28. calorie
    • measure of heat energy required to increase the temperature of one gram of water by 1*C
    • energy from food
  29. 3 types of carbs
    • glycogen - storage for animals
    • cellulose - used as structural support in plants
    • starch - storage for humans
  30. Basic structures
    • simple sugars => carbs
    • fatty acids => lipids
    • amino acids => proteins
    • nucleotides => nucleic acids
  31. hydrolysis
    two molecules splitting
  32. saturated fatty acids
    all carbons are single bonded to each other; other bonds have H so saturated with Hydrogen
  33. unsaturated fatty acids
    two or more double bonded carbons in the backbone
  34. trans FA
    • straight
    • H are alternating
  35. cis FA
    • H are all on the same side
    • cis is healthier than trans
  36. phospholipids
    • maun components of cell membrance
    • hydrophilic head, hydrophobic tail
  37. waxes
    • firm, pliable, water repelling, lubricating
    • ex. bees wax, earwax, leaves wax
  38. sterols: cholesterol
    • membrane components: precursors of other molecules (steroid hormones)
    • steroids -> 3 hexagons, 1 pentagon
  39. Proteins' Functions
    • structure - dictates function
    • nutrition
    • enzymes
    • transportation
    • communication
    • defense
  40. peptide bonds
    bonds between amino acids
  41. enzymes
    organic catalyst
  42. Primary Structure
    • linear
    • amino acids joined by peptide bonds form a linear polypeptide chain
  43. Secondary Structure
    polypeptide chains form sheets and coils
  44. Tertiary Structure
    • sheets and coils pack into functional domains
    • domains: area of protein
    • functional domain: area of protein that does its job
  45. Quaternary Structure
    • many proteins (not all) consist of 2 or more chains (subunits) to make a functional protein
    • weak interatcion hold protein together
  46. hemoglobin
    • 4 chains to make it work
    • hydrogen bonds
    • molecule that carries O from lungs throughout body, brings C back to lungs to exhale
    • requires iron to function
  47. Denaturing
    • protein unfolds and loses its 3D shape
    • then loses is function
    • caused by shifts in pH or temperature or exposure to salts/detergents
    • disrupts H bonds and other molecular interactions responsible for protein shape
  48. Cell Theory
    • all organisms consist of one or more cells
    • the cell is the smallest unit that retains the capacity for life
    • a cell arises from the growth and division of another cell
    • Robert Hooke coined the word "cell"
  49. cell wall
    • protects and maintains shape of cell
    • lets things pass through
    • plants and bacteria
  50. cell membrane
    • regulates what comes in and out of cell
    • maintains volume of cytoplasm
    • plants and animals
  51. nucleus
    • contains hereditary material (DNA) and nucleolus with a double lipid bilayer
    • plants, animals, bacteria
  52. nucleolus
    • inside nucleus
    • ribosomes are made
    • plants and animals
  53. mitochondria
    • in cytoplasm, contains lots of folded membranes where ATP is made
    • powerhouse of the cell
    • plants, animals, and bacteria
  54. ATP
    made by cellular respiration (the way food is broken down to make energy)
  55. central vacuole
    • also helps maintain shape in cells
    • stores waste
    • increases the surface area of membrane
    • plants
  56. endosymbiotic theory
    chloroplasts and mitochondria used to be independent cells
  57. cytoplasm
    • semi-fluid jelly like substance where all organelles are suspended; large % is water
    • plants, bacteria, animals
  58. chloroplasts
    • photosynthesis; containts pigment and membrane, uses solar energy to power the process of making food
    • plant
  59. lysosome
    • contains enzymes that breaks down wastes
    • digests and recycles
    • plants and animals
  60. ribosomes
    • proteins are made
    • no membrane
    • can either be attached to ER or free in cytoplasm
    • animals and plants
  61. rough endoplasmic reticulum (rough ER)
    • ribosomes attached to the wavy structure
    • modifies proteins
    • plants and animals
  62. smooth endoplasmic reticulum (smooth ER)
    • no ribosomes on it
    • makes lipids
    • plants and animals
  63. golgi bodies
    • parcks and sorts things
    • packs by putting a membrane on it
    • plants and animals
  64. flagella
    • long, whiplike, protein structure - for movement
    • bacteria and at times animals
  65. pili
    • short proteins that surround cells
    • helps identify cells
    • bacteria
  66. activation energy
    minimum energy needed to start a reaction
  67. catabolism
    breaks down
  68. anabolism
    builds up
  69. active site
    • small cleft in enzymes surface where chemical reactions take place
    • microenvironment is more favorable for reaction than the surrounding
  70. induced fit
    • between the substrate and active site
    • excluding water from active site (hydrolysis)
    • lock and key model
  71. allosteric site
    • allosteric affectors
    • enzyme binding site other than active site
    • alters shape of enzyme to enhance or inhibit function
  72. feedback inhibitor
    • chain reaction:
    • end product (too much of it) is an inhibitor of the first reaction
    • each product serves as a substrate for the next reaction
    • controls over enzyme activity adjusts types and amount of substrate in cells
  73. competitive inhibitor
    • prevents certain reactions from taking place
    • substrate and inhibitor compete for active site
  74. non competitive inhibitor
    does not bind at active site. binds somewhere else
  75. First Law of Thermodynamics
    • Energy cannot be created or destroyed
    • 10% rules - 90% of energy is 'lost' at each step of the food chain
  76. Second Law of Thermodynamics
    • entropy: tendency towards disorder
    • ex. states of matter changes: some require entropy others just occur spontaneously
  77. cellular respiration
    • how you get energy from food
    • glucose + ATP = glucose-6P -> ->->->->-> 36 ATP
    • takes place in mitochondria
  78. endergonic reactions
    • energy requiring reactions
    • photosynthesis: requires sunlight to make food
  79. exergonic reactions
    • energy releasing reactions
    • aerobic respiration: formation of ATP => help with net output of energy
  80. phosphorylation
    • transferring phosphate groups to and from ATP
    • couple metabolic reactions that release usable energy to metabolic reactions
  81. concentration
    of a substance - number of atoms or molecules in a given volume
  82. concentration gradient
    • a difference in concentration between two regions
    • type of measurement
  83. diffusion
    when a higher concentration decreases to a lower concentration area
  84. diffusion rates
    • are influences by:
    • temperatire (greater = faster diffusion)
    • molecular size (bigger = slower)
    • gradients of pressure, charge, and concentration
  85. dynamic diffusion
    each molecule can moce back and forth freely through the cell membrane
  86. passive diffusion
    • no energy required
    • high to low concentration
  87. aquapoze
    • water passes through it; no energy required
    • enzyme helper
  88. facilitated
    had a helper
  89. osmosis
    movement of water across a selectively permeable surface, from an area of high water concentration to low or vice versa
  90. hypertonic
    • higher solutes outside than inside
    • water moves out
  91. hypotonic
    • more solutes inside
    • water moves in
  92. isotonic
    equal amount of water on both sides of the membrane
  93. capillary action
    • when water sticks to something and climbs up it
    • ex. water climbing up a xylem
  94. symbiosis
    • close relationship between two organisms
    • 3 types:
    • commencalism, parasitism, mutualism
  95. commencalism
    one organism benefits, other is unaffected
  96. parasitism
    one organism benefits, other is harmed
  97. mutualism
    both organisms benefit
  98. Natural Selection
    mechanism of evolution according to Darwin's Theory
  99. resolving power
    the ability to distinguish between two lines
  100. endocytosis
    • brings large things into the cell
    • active transport
  101. exocytosis
    • puts large things out
    • also active transport
    • 2 types:
    • phagocytosis
    • pinnocytosis
  102. active transport
    require energy to move something
  103. phagocytosis
    bug food, eaten/decomposed (amoeba)
  104. pinnocytosis
    "drinking" things into the cell
  105. Lab Testing
    • starch = Iodine = black
    • simple sugars = Benedict's solution = red, orange, green
    • proteins = Biuret = purple
    • fats and oils = Sudan III = red particles

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview