Circulation Study Sheet

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Circulation Study Sheet
2012-01-22 13:55:49
Blood cardiovascular system lymphatic immunity

Physiology test 1
Show Answers:

  1. Describe in genral terms, blood as a tissure.
    Its and extension of our bones, formed in the Red Marrow of long bones like the Femur.
  2. What are the 3 main functions of blood?
    • 1.Transport
    • 2.Protection
    • 3.Regulation
  3. Discuss blood as a transporter.
    Its moves dissolved substances to and from cells.
  4. List the properties of blood.
    • Color
    • Red when oxygenated.
    • Blue when deoxygenated.

    • Volume
    • Males 5-6 liters.
    • Females 4-5 liters.

    • Viscosity
    • 5x thicker than water.

    • pH
    • 7.35-7.45: Slightly alkaline
  5. What is the liquid (solution) portion of the blood called?
  6. What percent of plasma is water?
  7. What are plasma proteins?
    • -Albumins (55%): thicken blood, increase osmotic pressure.
    • -Globulins (38%): antibodies
    • -Fibrinogen (7%): Precursor to fibrin (clotting fiber)
  8. What other substances can be found dissolved in plasma?
    • -Blood proteins
    • -Foods
    • -Wastes
    • -Gases
  9. What are the 3 types of formes elements?
    • -Erythrocytes
    • -Leukocytes
    • -Platelets
  10. What are 2 other names for red blood cells?
    • -Erythrocytes
    • -Red Corpuscles
  11. Describe the structure of RBC's.
    Have no nucleus or cytoplasmic organelles. Unable to reproduce themselves or replace lost or damaged cellular components. Shaped like a circular disk thats caved in on both sides.Elastic.Contains hemoglobin(an iron containing protein) 6-8 micrometers in diameter. 2 micrometers thick.
  12. Describe the life cycle of RBC's.
    Made in the bone marrow. Go through various stages of development until mature RBC can be lit in the bloodstream. Takes about 7 days. Travels the circulatory system about 100,000 times. Usually dies in the spleen. Lifespan of about 120 days.
  13. What is the density of RBC's/blood volume?
    4-6 millions/mm3
  14. What are two other names for White Blood Cells?
    Leukocytes, White Corpuscles.
  15. What is the density of WBC's/Blood Volume?
  16. What is a granulocyte?
    • White Blood Cell
    • Neutrophils-55-60% of WBC's. Phagocytize dead cells and foreign particles.
    • Eosinphils-17-4% of WBC's. Phagocytize allergins.
    • Basophils-.5% of WBC's. Promote inflammation by secreting histamines.
  17. What is a Agranuloctye?
    • White Blood Cell
    • Monocyte-3-8% of WBC's. Search for foregin materials and phagocytize.
    • Lymphocyte-25-33% of WBC's. Produce antibodies to guard against viruses.
  18. Describe (diapedesis, psuedopodia, phagocytosis) how WBC's remove a foreign body.
    • Diapedesis-The movement through intact capillary walls into surrounding body tissue.
    • Psuedopodia-A temporary protrusion of the cytoplasm of an ameba; serving for locomotion or the engulfment of food.
    • Phagocytosis-Envelopes and digests debris and micorganisms to remove them from the blood.
  19. Define blood diseases (anemia, sickle cell anemia, leukemia, mononucleosis.)
    • Anemia-Any disease associated with RBC quality or quantity.
    • Sickle Cell Anemia-Possible fatal, herediatry disease caused by an abnormal type of hemoglobin.
    • Leukemia-Blood cancer characterized by an increase in WBC's.
    • Mono-Characterized by an increase in the number of mononuclear leukocytes.
  20. Describe the position of the heart.
    Located between the lungs in the lower portion of the mediastinum.
  21. What is the pericardium?
    Around the heart.
  22. Diagram the heart sturcture and how blood moves through.
    • Blood from the inferior and superior Vena Cava enters the R.Atrium, this then flows into the R.Ventricle, then the Pulmonary Trunk which goes through the Pulmonary Arteries and into the Lungs to get oxygenated. The blood then travels to the L.Atruim through the Pulmonary Veins. From the L.Atrium the blood then travles through the Arteries and then into the Capillaries where the O2 from the blood diffuses into the Tissues. The deoxygenated blood then travles through the Veins to the Superior and Inferior where the process starts again.
    • 1.Aorta 2.Inferior Vena Cava 3.Superior Vena Cava. 4.Pulmonary Trunk. 5.L.Pulmonary Artery 6.R.Pulmonary Artery. 7.R.Pulmonary Vein 8.L.Pulmonary Vein 9.Aortic Semi-Lunar Valve. 10.Pulmonary Semi-Lunar Valve 11.Mitral Valve 12.Tricuspid Valve 13.L.Ventricle 14.R.Atrium 15.R.Ventricle 16.L.Atrium 17.Oxy to entire body 18.Deoxy from lower body 19.Deoxy from brain 20.Deoxy to L.Lung 21.Deoxy to R.Lung 22.Oxy from L.Lung 23.Oxy from R.Lung.
  23. Describe how the nervous system originates a heart contraction.
    • 1.The SA node depolarizes the atria, the atria contract.
    • 2.The Mitral and Tricuspid valves open and blood loads the ventricles.
    • 3.Teh AV node sends and electrical stimulus down the bundle of his, into the L/R AV branches, into the purkinje fibers.
    • 4.Depoarizes the ventricles, the ventricles contract.
    • 5.Mitral and Tricuspid valves shut "lub"
    • 6.The semi-lunar valves open and loads the aorta and pulmonary turnk.
    • 7.The back pressure in the aorta and pulmonary trunk slams the semi-lunar valve shut "dup"
  24. What is an EKG, what can it tell us?
    • Electro Cardio Gram
    • Can check the hearts electrical activity, Find the cause of unexplained chest pain, find the cause of symptoms of heart disease, find out if the walls of the chambers of the heart are to thick, check how medicines are working, check on mechinacal devices in the heart, check the health of the heart.
  25. What is the pulse?
    The rhymical throbbing of arteris produced by the regular contractions of the heart.
  26. What is blood pressure, and how is it regulated?
    • Pressure of the blood in the blood vessel, expressed as systolic pressure over diastolic pressure. 120
    • 80 mmHg
    • Blood volume, strenght of heart contractions,heart rate, blood viscosity,resistance to blood flow.
  27. How is the Circulatory system regulated?
    Circulating blood helps maintain homeostasis of all body fluids.Blood helps regulate the pH through use of buffers. It also helps adjust body temp. through the heat absorbing and coolant properties of water. In blood plasma and its variable rate of flow through the skin. Blood osmotic pressure influences the water content of cells.
  28. Draw and lable the circulatory pathway.
  29. 1.Aorta 2.Inferior Vena Cava 3.Superior Vena Cava. 4.Pulmonary Trunk. 5.L.Pulmonary Artery 6.R.Pulmonary Artery. 7.R.Pulmonary Vein 8.L.Pulmonary Vein 9.Aortic Semi-Lunar Valve. 10.Pulmonary Semi-Lunar Valve 11.Mitral Valve 12.Tricuspid Valve 13.L.Ventricle 14.R.Atrium 15.R.Ventricle 16.L.Atrium 17.Oxy to entire body 18.Deoxy from lower body 19.Deoxy from brain 20.Deoxy to L.Lung 21.Deoxy to R.Lung 22.Oxy from L.Lung 23.Oxy from R.Lung.
  30. Differentaiate between arteries and veins?
    • Artery is a vessel carrying blood away from the heart.
    • Vessel is carrying blood towards the heart.
  31. Discuss capillary structure and exchange.
    • Tiny vessels that connect arterioles and Venules.
  32. List the systemic arteries and veins.
    • Arteries
    • External/internal/common cartoid. Subclavain. Auxillary. Cephallic. Deep Brachial. Descending or abdominal aorta. Ulnar.Radial.Common/External/Internal iliac. Deem Femoral. Femoral. Popliteal. Posterior Tistial. Fibular(peroneal). Anterion Tibial.
    • Veins
    • Subclavian. Auxillary. Cephalic. Brachial. Common/External/Internal Iliac. Deep femoral. Femora. Popliteal. Posterior Tibial. Anterior Tibial.
  33. List and define Myacardial Infarct,Stroke,Heart Murmur, Edema, Hypertension, Vericose Veins.
    • Myacardial Infarct-Heart attack,Destruction of heart tissue resulting from obstruction of the blood supply to the heart muscle.
    • Stroke-The sudden death of brain cells in a localized area due to inadequate blood flow.
    • Heart Murmur-Abnormal sound of the heart, sometimes a sign of abnormal function of the heart valves.
    • Edema-A condition characterized by an excess of watery fluid collecting in the cavities or tissues of the body.
    • Hypertension-Abnormally high blood pressure.
    • Vericose Veins-A vein that is permanently dialated.
  34. Diagram the lymphatic network.
    • Returns the proteins and fluids to blood. Carries lipids from gastrointestinal fract to blood. Contains sites of maturation and proliferation of bond T cells that protect against diseas causing microbes.
    • Components:Lymphatic fluid and vessels; spleen, thymus,lymph nodes, and tonsils.
  35. What is a lymph?
    specialized fluid formed in the tissue spaces that returns excessive fluid and protein molecules to the blood via lymphatic vesssels.
  36. How does lymph move?
    skeletal muscle pump, respiratory pump.
  37. Describe lymph node structure and function.
    • Bean shaped swellings surrounded by a fibrous capsule and filled with a mus-like tissue. Can be divided into an outer cortex and inner medulla.
    • Key organs of immune systema nd create WBC's that fight off different diseases based on type or create antibodies to identify and neturalized infectious agents previously encountered.
  38. Where can lymphatic tissue be found?
    Many organs, lymph nodes, lymphoid follicles.
  39. Describe the typical human immune response.
    Protects the body from potentially harmful substances by recognizing and responding to antigens. The immune system recognizes and destroys substances that contain these antigens.
  40. Describe allergic response.
    When a persons immune system reacts to normally harmless substances in the environment.
  41. Why does the body temp. typically raise during immune response?
    • To induce sleep and rest.
    • To increase chemical reactors.
    • Because many pathogens are denatured at a high temp.
  42. Compare and ontrast bacterial and viral infection.
    • Bacteria are single celled microorganisms that thrive in many different types of environments.
    • Viruses are even smaller than bacteria and require living hosts. It invades some of your cells and takes over the cell machinery redirecting it to produce the virus.
  43. What is acquired immunity?
    Immunity obtained either fom the development of antibodies in response to exposure to and antigen, as from vaccination or an attack of an infectious disease, or fom the transmission of antibodies.
  44. Disscus HIV.
    • Human immunodeficency Virus.
    • A retrovirus that causes AIDS.
  45. What is a vaccine and how does it work?
    A substance used to stimulate the production of antibodies and provide against one or several disease. It activates the bodies natural defenses. The body fights off a weekend form of a disease and creates a resistance to it.
  46. What are antibiotics and how do they work?
    • A medicene that inhibits the growth of or destroys microorganisms.
    • It kills desired bacteria but not cells.