western civ- Renaissance.txt

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western civ- Renaissance.txt
2012-01-22 15:19:41

The Renaissance
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  1. In the 15th century, what powers dominated the Italian peninsula?
    Naples, Venice, Florence, Milan, and the Papal states
  2. What factors contributed to the wealth of Florence, Italy?
    the control of papal banking
  3. What city was ruled by the Medici family?
    Florence. The Medici's days of pwer were 1434-1494. Technically, it was a republic, but only the wealthy had power. They did invest in libraries, universities, etc.
  4. How were most Italian city states ruled by 1300?
    by signoris or oligarchies. On the outside, they might be republics.
  5. According to your test, what was the single most important factor bringin about the Italian Renaissance?
    The urban elite was the single most important factor. The wealthy had land & money. They thought investing in art, lit, etc. was good. Because of the Black Death, there was a shift in the wealth. Land wasn't a good investment anymore. Nobles were willing to give people freedom if they could invest in urban opportunites. Children of nobles married children of the wealthy, bringing about the urban elite. Public art was a way to build reputation.
  6. Who was Petrarch and how was he significant in the period we call the Renaissance?
    He was a poet and humanist who believed and promoted the idea that the Germanic invasions ahd caused a sharp cultural break and had brought about the Dark Ages. He was called the "Father of the Renaissance." He searchedx throughout country for Greek and Roman writings. The study of Roman lit brought in humanism.
  7. Explain teh central components or attributes of the Italian Renaissance.
    • Individualism- stressed personality, uniqueness, and the full devlopment of capablities and talent"
    • Humanism- focused on people and their achievements, interests, and capabilites. The greatest thing for man to study is man
    • Secularism- focused on material things instead of spiritual
  8. What did humanists hope to gain from teh study of classical writings?
    more knowledge about human nature
  9. What was The Courtier, what were its goals, and who wrote it?
    Baldassare Castiglione wrote The Courtier. It was a book that listed how the ideal gentleman would act. Its goals were to educate the noble elite who might not have been as refined as others.
  10. What was the impact of movable type printing arriving in the West?
    It helped make literacy more widespread. Propoganda was printed, along with national news. Within 20 years, 40,000 new books in West.
  11. Who was Machiavelli, what did he write, and what was controversial about his views?
    He was a humanist who wrote The Prince in 1513. His views were controversial because he said that a ruler should do anything, even if it's not morally correct, to gain and keep power. Rulers should not focus on what should be, but what actually is. Prince should study what government actions get desired results (political science).
  12. Who wrote the essay On the Dignity of Man and what did it stress?
    Pico della Mirandola, an Italian humanist, wrote it. It stressed that man was made in the image of God before the fall and Christ after the Resurrection. This is what man's dignity is based on. There are no limits on what man can do. Christian humanists disagreed. We are no longer an accurate image of God because of fall.
  13. What did Northern humanists blieve about human nature?
    Human nature has been corrupted by sin, but itg was still capable of improvement through education, because it was basically good. Humans are not the same as the divine. They stressed education with Christian principles.
  14. In the book Utopia, where did Thomas Moore place the blame for society's problems?
    private ownership. In the book, everyone is equal. People are satisfied because no one owns land
  15. How did Charles VII of France try to centralize power?
    He centralized power by elevating the middle class to undercut nobility. He took control of appointments of archbishops. He created the first royal army so he didn't need to depend on nobles.
  16. In his On Christian Liberty, what did Luther mean by the term freedom?
    the freedom to obey the Word of God and independence from the authority of the Roman Catholic Church. This statement led to massive peasant revolts in Germany. A prince could declare a state Roman Catholic Church. 10,000-12,000 government rulers killed. Luther says no, you still have to obey secular government. 100,000 peasants killed.
  17. What was the origin of slaves imported to Europe in the 14th and 15th century?
    • 14th- Eastern European/Slavic
    • 15th- Africa
  18. What was the significant outcome of the Peace of Ausburg?
    It let each prince determine the religion of his province. Germany was divided for a long time.
  19. What did Calvinist theology teach about predestination?
    The Calvinists taught that God ahd predestined, or chosen, who would be saved.
  20. What was the Counter Reformation and at what Council was the groundwork laid for this?
    It was the attempt by the RCC to undo the Protestant Reformation. The Council of Trent laid the groundwork. It was a group of people who met periodically over time to deal w/ complaints brought up by Prot. Ref. Decided what to change. Group of cardinals that eliminated plurality, cracked down on immorality, and tackled education. But it reasserted that church tradition and the Bible were equal. However, it didn't matter what you did outside of the Anglican Church service.
  21. What was the Elizabethan Settlement?
    It said that all people born in England had to attend the Anglican Church. All Englishmen had to be members and use the book of common prayers
  22. What was the Edict of Nantes?
    It granted Huguenots liberty of conscience and liberty of public worship in 200 fortified towns, for those who didn't want to convert to Catholocism. King Henry of Navarre gave this edict after the War of the 3 Henrys.
  23. Who founded the Society of Jesus and what was its primary focus?
    Ignatious Loyola; the spread of Catholocism
  24. Who was Martin Luther, what was significant about him, what did he teach regarding salvation and the church? What were the results of his ideas? How did German princes utilize his teachings for their own purposes?
    He was a German Augustinan friar and university professor who lived from 1483-1546. He entered the priesthood against family because of an encounter with God. He followed all of the rules, but he never felt safe or good enough. He got the teachings of Wycliffe and Hus. They believed in salvation through faith. Luther adopted these beliefs. The selling of indulgences was teh last straw. In 1517, he hung his list of 95 theses on the church door. This stated things about the RCC that went against Scripture. This sparked a great controversy. The Germanic princes used this teaching to extend their financial and political independece.
  25. Describe the process that brought the Protestant Reformation to England and how this impacted the heirs of Henvry VIII.
    Henry VII united England as a kingdom. He was a supporter of the RCC. He married his oldest son to Catherine of Aragon. After his oldest son died, his second son wanted to marry Catherine. They asked the church for an annulment of the first marriage, saying that it had never been consummated. The church grants it. Years later, Catherine has not given Henry VIII a son, but a daughter named Mary. Henry asks the church for another annulment because he wants Anne Boleyn as a wife so he can have a son. Church doesn't grant it; Henry breaks off ties from the Roman Catholic Church. He establishes the Church of England, which he is head of, annuls his marriage to Catherine and marries Anne Boleyn. Anne doesn't produce a son either, but another girl, Elizabeth. Henry has her charged with adultery and beheaded. He has other wives and only one son. This son takes the throne when Henry dies, and the nation is Protestant. The son dies and Mary takes the throne. She is a Catholic like her mother and tries to undo the actions of her father. There's a great persecution of Protestants during this time. Mary marries her cousin, Philip of Spain. Many do not like this because it means that England could fall under the control of Spain. Mary dies in childbirth, and Elizabeth comes to the throne. She does not really care about religionn, but she has to be Protestant. If she is Catholic, she has no claim to the throne because the Catholic Church does not recognize her parents' marriage.
  26. Describe the political consequences of the Reformation in the Low Countries (Spanish Netherlands).
    the religious issues became the basis for political revolutions.
  27. What was the focus of France's foreign policy during the Thiry Years' War?
    to keep the Holy Roman Empire and Germany weak and divided
  28. Which monarch was the strongest defender of Catholic power in the late 16th century?
    Philip of Spain. He used money from the Aztecs to support the Catholic cause. Charles V was also a big supporter.
  29. Emperor Charles V called Luther to appear at a special council in 1521 to defend his ideas, falsely promising him safe passage. What was this council called?
    the Diet at Worms
  30. Briefly describe the key contributions of Hus, Wyclif, and Luther.
    Whyclif was an Oxford professor. He wanted to reform and to translate Greek and Latin Bibles into English. He didn't agree with some of the church's teachings, like indulgences. He believed in salvation through faith. He used dispensation in the classroom to argue his point. Hus learned and became a part of some of Wyclif's debates, particularly the church's control of the sacraments. He supported Wyclif's arguments. The church was withholding things from common people. Priests got wine during the eucharist but the common people didn't. He started preaching sermons in his native language, Czech, so all could understand. Archbishop of Prague excommunicated him. Monarch protected him. Then, he started condemning the sale of indulgences, which monarchs got a profit from. The monarch stopped protecting him. He was burned at the stake along with much of his writings. Luther found the writings of Wyclif and Hus. He opposed indulgenges, just like they did. This is the start of the Protestant Reformation.
  31. Name some of the important artists and writers of the Renaissance discussed in this film and some of their works.
    • Michelangelo- Sistine chapel; David
    • Leonardo da Vinci- The Last Supper
    • Rafael- La Pieta
    • Donatello
  32. What factors, events, etc. contributed to Renaissance painting being different from the paintings of previous periods?
    existence of urban elite who paid for paintings about the secular world. Different buyer equaled different art. Focus on humanism created more realistic work.
  33. What were some of the causes of the artistic boom during the Renaissance?
    money from the urban elite, printing press which spread everything everywhere, development of humanism
  34. What is the relationship between anatomy, painting, and scultpure?
    in order to glorify humans and to make things more realistic, artists studied anatomy
  35. Why was the concept of making things look real important to Renaissance artists?
    because of secularism, there was a focus on the here and now
  36. How did artists create fresco?
    created the painting while plaster on wall was still fresh. It didn't work well.
  37. Why was Machiavelli nicknamed "Old Nick"?
    It was a slang term for Satan.
  38. Who developed the printing press and how did it impact publishing and literature during the Renaissance?
    Gutenburg developed it in Western Europe. It made everything cheaper and helped spread the Protestant Ref.
  39. According to the film, what is "humanism"?
    the idea that the most appropriate study for mankind is mankind, glorifying humanity
  40. What technique is used by artists to represent three dimensions on a two-dimensional surface?
  41. How does the DVD define "opera"?
    a story set to music
  42. How does the DVD define "madrigal"?
    creating different part that, put together, create a song