sem 2 neuro b

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sweetlu
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129749
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sem 2 neuro b
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2012-01-28 13:46:04
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sem 2 neuro b
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  1. A alpha axon
    • - proprioception of skeletal muscle (1a, 1b)
    • -largest diametes
  2. A beta axons
    • - touch sensation
    • - 2nd largets diamter
    • - stimulation involved in pain suppression also (ribbing stubbed toe stim Abeta, which them stimulates and inhibitory neuron, which block spinothalamic pain signal)
  3. A delta axons
    • - mediate temperature (cold) and localised intense pain
    • - third largest diameter
  4. C fibers
    • - mediate slow, throbbing, lasting pain and temperature(hot)
    • - smallest diameter
    • - UNmyelinated
  5. pacianian corpuscle
    • - rapid adaptation
    • - vibration
    • - large receptive field
  6. Meissners corpuscle
    • - rapid adapting
    • - touch
    • - small receptive field
  7. Ruffini ending
    • - slow adapting
    • - pressure
    • - large recpetive field
  8. hair follicle receptor
    • - slow adapting
    • - touch
  9. Merkel ending
    • - slow adapting
    • - touch
    • - small receptive field
  10. encapsulated receptors for proprioception
    • -muscle spindles
    • - golgi tendons organs (similar to Ruffini endings)
  11. nociceptors
    - detect stimuli that has caused tissue damage or threaten to do so
  12. trigeminal chemosensory system
    - for detection of irritating or noxious molecules
  13. olfactory cortex components
    • - pyriform cortex
    • - amygdala
    • - entorhinal cortex
  14. path of a scent
    primary bipolar olfactory receptor->thru criniform plate->synapse in glomerulus-> secondary mitral cell
  15. lateral olfactory tract
    - project to ipsilateral primary olfactory cortex amygdala and entorhinal cortex
  16. medial olfactory tract
    • - axons project ipsilaterally to basal limbic forebrain structures
    • - others are from the contralateral anterior olfactory nucleus (via anterior commissure)
  17. agnosmia
    loss of verbal ability to classify, contrast and identify odor, with retained ability to detect and distinguish
  18. innervation of tongue
    • -CN VII- anterior 2/3, sweet, sour and salty
    • -CN IX- post 1/3, sour and bitter

    • -CNV- anterior 2/3 of the epithelium
    • -CN IX- post 1/3
  19. freq of human hearing
    20-16,000 Hz (20,000 in children)
  20. drugs with ototoxicty
    • - Abx- aminoglycosides- eg kanamycin
    • - chemotherapy- cisplatin
    • **only 3500 inner hair cells and they are not replacable**
  21. Otoacoustic emission
    • - A measure of outer hair cell function
    • - the hair cells of the inner ear can produce sound
  22. prestin
    - outer hair cell motor molecule which contracts the cell according to frequency
  23. pathway of sound sensory info
    -cochlear nerve-cochlear nuclei(v-med, d-pons)-bifurcation< superior olives(localization)- inf calliculos- MGN(thalamus)- primary auditory complex (41- sup temporal gyrus)
  24. secondary auditory centers
    • -22, 39, 40= wernickes area (speech comprehension)
    • -42, 22,39,40=aud memory and recognizing complex signals
  25. Brocas area
    • - 44 and 45 on inferior frontal gyrus
    • - par opercularis and pars triangularis
  26. wernickes area
    - area 22 on the superior temporal gyrus
  27. conductive hearing loss
    • - external or middle ear damaged
    • - Rinne test= BC>AC
    • -Webers test= sound is louder in affected ear
    • (in webers, tuning fork placed midline of forehead)
  28. sensorineural hearing loss
    • - cochlea or cochlear nerve damage
    • -Rinnes test= AC>BC
    • - Webers test- sound is louder in normal (unaffected) ear
  29. receptor organs of vestibular system
    • - linear acceleration and head tilt- (MACula)- utricle and saccule
    • - rotation-(CRISTA)- ant, post, horizontal
  30. medial longitudinal fascicle
    -p/w connecting vestibular and eye muscle nuclei
  31. dolls eyes
    • - test vestibulo- ocular reflex
    • - comatose patients eyes are opened and head turned- if eyes follow head (do NOT turn to keep gaze)=negative= brainstem lesion
  32. median zone
    • - dorsal raphe nucleus mesencephalon and nucleus rapha magnus medulla
    • - seratoninrgic p/w- sleep, pain and depression
    • - part of reticular system
  33. locus ceruleus
    • -noradrenilinergic
    • -attention, waking, vigilance
  34. dopaminergic p/ws
    • -mesencephalon
    • - cognitave functions, reward, motor functions
  35. cholinergic p/ws
    - cog functions memory and learning
  36. ARAS
    • ascending reticular acivating system
    • -filter input stimuli and adjust wake/sleep, alertness and consciousness
    • - afferents from everywhere
    • - efferents via thalamus influence cortical activity
  37. area postrema
    • - vomitting center in rhomboid fossa (bottom of 4th vent.)
    • - NO BBB
    • -chemical, vestibular, cortical, and visceral stimuli
    • - dorsal vagal nucleus output
    • -INCREASED ICP CAUSES PROJECTILE VOMITING
  38. respiratory center
    • -MEDULLA and pons
    • - afferents: CN IX and X
    • - efferents: reticulospinal tract, diaphragm, respiratory muscles
  39. cardiovascular center
    • - afferents: CN IX and X nucleus solitarius and hypothalamus
    • - efferents- PNS- dorsal vagal nucleus
    • SNS- reticulospinal tract

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