Endocrine

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copperkid2
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129796
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Endocrine
Updated:
2012-01-22 21:07:31
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Endocrine
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Chpt. 9 Endocrine System
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  1. Endocrine glands
    • ductless
    • secrete hormones
    • cells acted on by hormones are target cells
  2. Target organ cell
    receptor on a cell that a hormone targets
  3. Second messenger mechanism
    • 1. hormone communicates with target organ cell
    • 2. another molecule is released within the organ to cause cells within the organ to perform a function
  4. Which homeostatic mechanism is usually used by hormones
    negative feedback loop
  5. What are prostaglandins
    • aka tissue hormones
    • produced in organ tissue and then diffuses to other cells within that organ tissue
    • doesn't meet teh definition of a hormone
    • diffuse a short distance
  6. Pituitary gland
    • broken into 2 parts
    • 1. anterior pituatary gland (adenohypophysis): glandular
    • 2. posterior pituatary gland (neurohypophysis): nervous
  7. Anterior pituatary gland
    • controls thyroid gland, adrenal cortex, ovarian follicles, corpus luteum
    • secretes:
    • thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
    • adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
    • follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
    • luteininzing hormone (LH)
    • growth hormone (GH)
    • prolactin
  8. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
    • ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND HORMONE
    • stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete thyroid hormone
  9. adrenocorticotripic hormone (ACTH)
    • ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND HORMONE
    • stimulates the adrenal cortex
  10. follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
    • ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND HORMONE
    • stimulates ovarian follicles to start growing and secrete estrogen
    • stimulates males to produce sperm
  11. luteinizing hormone (LH)
    • ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND HORMONE
    • causes ovulation
    • stimulates corpus luteum tor produce progesterone
    • stimulates testes to secrete testosterone
  12. growth hormone (GH)
    • ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND HORMONE
    • increases blood glucose levels
    • increases fat breakdown (catabolism)
    • increases tissue growth
    • hypersecretion causes... gigantism (adolescent), acromegaly (adult)
  13. prolactin
    • ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND HORMONE
    • aka lactogenic hormone
    • stimulates breast tissue for lactation during pregnancy
  14. Posterior pituitary gland hormones (neurohypophysis)
    • antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
    • oxytocin (OT)
  15. antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
    • POSTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND HORMONE
    • created by hypothalamus, stored in neurohypophysis
    • causes kidney to reabsorb more water; decreases urine output
  16. oxytocin (OT)
    • POSTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND HORMONE
    • stimulates uterine contraction
    • causes "milk letdown" into ducts within breast tissue
    • created by hypothalamus
  17. diabetes insipidus
    • hyposecretion of ADH
    • excessive urination causes extreme thirst, dehydration and electrolyte imbalance
  18. hypothalamus
    • creates ADH and oxytocin then sends it to the posterior pituitary gland for storage and secretion
    • creates releasing and inhibititing hormones which control the anterior pituitary glands secretions
  19. releasing and inhibiting hormones
    • produced by the hypothalamus
    • cause the release or inhibition of anterior pituatary gland hormones
  20. thyroid gland
    • secretes thyroxine (t4), triiodothyronine (t3) and calcitonin
    • stores thyroid hormones in a colloid compound
    • stimulates metabolism
    • regulates blood calcium levels
    • secretions regulated by the hypothalamus
  21. thyroxine(t4) and triiodothyronine (t3)
    • thyroid hormones
    • stimulate cellular metabolism
  22. calcitonin
    • thyroid hormone
    • decreases blood calcium levels
    • inhibits osteoclasts from breaking down bone
  23. cretinism
    • hyposecretion of thyroid hormones
    • low metabolism, retarded growth and sexual development, and mental retardation
  24. myxedema
    • adult hypothyroidism
    • lessened mental and physical vigor, weight gain, hair loss, baggy eyes
  25. parathyroid glands
    • located at the back of the thyroid
    • secretes parathyroid hormone which increase blood calcium
  26. parathyroid hormone
    • stimulates osteoclasts to break down bone
    • increases blood calcium levels
  27. adrenal glands
    • separated into 2 glands; adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla
    • secretes corticoids and adrenaline
    • works with sympathetic nervous system to prolong the "fight or flight" response
  28. adrenal cortex
    • 3 layers which secrete corticoids
    • outer zone secretes mineralcorticoids
    • middle zone secretes glucocorticoids
    • inner zone secretes androgens (sex hormones)
  29. mineralcorticoids
    • secreted from the outter layer of the adrenal cortex
    • corticoid hormone
    • maintain mineral salts within the body
    • aldosterone is the main one; increase blood sodium and decrease blood potassium
    • decreases urine output
  30. glucocorticoids
    • secreted by the middle layer of the adrenal cortex
    • coriticoid hormone
    • increases blood glucose levels
    • has an antiimunity, antiallergy effect (decreasese antibodies)
    • released during stressful moments
  31. adrenal medulla
    • inner portion of the adrenal cortex
    • releases epinephrine and norepinephrine
  32. Cushing syndrome
    • hypersecretion of glucocorticoids
    • moonface and buffalo hump are symptoms
    • elevated blood sugar and frequent infections (glucocorticoids suppress antibodies and increase blood sugar)
  33. virilizing tumor
    • tumor within the inner zone of the adrenal cortex
    • excess androgens are usually released which cause male secondary characterisitics (facial hair, body hair, muscle mass)
  34. Addison's disease
    • hyposecretion of adrenal cortex hormones
    • JFK had it
    • muscle weakness, reduced blood sugar, loss of appetite and weight
  35. pancreatic islets / islets of langerhans
    • alpha cells secrete glucagon
    • beta cells secrete insulin
  36. corpus luteum
    secretes progesterone
  37. thymus
    • secretes thymosin which develops the immune system
    • located within the mediastinum
  38. Placenta
    • secretes chorionic gonadotropins
    • makes estrogen and progesterone
  39. pineal gland
    • aka third eye
    • secretes melatoninin
    • melatonin secretion affected by night and day
  40. melatoninin
    • inhibits tropic hormones that affect ovaries
    • regulates onset of puberty and menstrual cycle

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