Ecology- Biosphere

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Anonymous
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129857
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Ecology- Biosphere
Updated:
2012-01-22 21:59:53
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ecology
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ecology chapter 3 terms
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  1. megafauna
    animals larger than 45 kg or 100 lbs
  2. biosphere
    zone of life on earth btwn lithosphere and troposphere
  3. lithosphere
    earths surface crust and upper mantel
  4. troposphere
    the lowest layer of the atmosphere
  5. biomes
    unit to introduce diversity of terrestrial life on earth

    large scale biological comunities shaped by the physical enviroment in which they are found
  6. hypothesis purposed to account for disappearance of north america megafauna
    rapid changes in climate, cause change in habitat and food supply

    arrival of humans to North America
  7. How are biomes catagorized?
    by most common forms of plants distributed across large geographic areas

    relys on similarities in morphological responses of organisims to physical enviroment

    ocur as similar biotic assemblages on distant continents(climatic forces)

    convient biological unit for modelers simulating the effects of the enviroment change on biological communities
  8. Terrestrial Biomes (classified by)
    growth form of the dominant plants

    growth form is the size and morphology, use characteristics of leaves, such as succulents/thickness/deciduousness
  9. Why use plants rather than animals to catagorize terrestrial biomes?
    plants are immobile, meaning they have to cope with its enviroment extremes as well as its biological pressures

    microorganisms are important b/c microbial communties reflect physical conditions in a manner similar to plant growth forms but tiny size and rapid temporal and special changes in composition makes impractical for classification
  10. Selection pressures of terrestrial enviroment
    aridity, high and subfreezing temperatures, intense solar radiation, nutrient poor soils, grazing by animals, crowding by neighbors,
  11. Convergence
    the evolution of similar growth forms among distantly related species in response to similar selection pressures
  12. Tropics
    • between 23.5 degrees north and south,
    • high rainfall and warm

    subtropical regions- rainfall becomes more seasonal with pronounced dry and wet seasons
  13. Major Desserts
    zones of high pressure at 30 degrees north and south, rain shadow effects of large mountain ranges,
  14. Temperate and Polar Zones
    subfreezing temperatures during winter,
  15. Temperature and Precipitation
    temperature influences the distribution of plant growth

    precipitation and temperature influence the availability of water and its rate loss by plants

    water availability important in determining the supply of nutrients in the soil which controls plant growth forms

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