Jeopardy for Fluids and Electrolytes

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Author:
jdieken22
ID:
129905
Filename:
Jeopardy for Fluids and Electrolytes
Updated:
2012-01-23 01:47:36
Tags:
Pathophysiology fluids electrolytes
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Jeopardy questions for Pahtophysiology on fluids and electrolytes
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  1. What is capillary hydrostatic pressure?
    Pushing pressure that moves fluid out of capillaries.
  2. What are causes of sodium excess or water deficit?
    Enteral feedings, osmotic diuresis, inability to respond to thirst
  3. What is the pathophysiology of hyperkalemia that affects muscles?
    Muscle cell resting membrane potentials are hypopolarized.They contract, but can’t contract again
  4. What are actions of parathyroid hormone?
    Increases serum calcium and decreases serum phosphorus
  5. What are causes of hypercalcemia?
    Hyperparathyroidism, immobilization, or bone tumors
  6. How does acidosis cause hyperkalemia?
    To raise blood pH, hydrogen ions move into cells, causing potassium to move into blood
  7. What is an example of osmosis? OR
    What causes some manifestations of a sodium excess?
    Fluid moves out of cells and cells shrink
  8. What are causes of fluid loss?
    Vomiting, diarrhea, hemorrhage, drainage from tubes, & diaphoresis
  9. How does the body respond to high serum osmolality?
    Creates thirst & secretes antidiuretic hormone
  10. What are manifestations of a hypernatremia?
    Confusion, lethargy, seizureoliguria & thirst
  11. What are manifestations of a hyperkalemia?
    Abdominal cramping and diarrhea; low pulse, heart blocks
  12. What are manifestations of hypercalcemia?
    Muscle weakness, ↓ deep tendon reflexes, or kidney stones
  13. What are manifestations of hypocalcemia or hypomagnesemia?
    Muscle spasms, hypereactive reflexes,+Trousseau’s sign, +Chvostek’s sign
  14. What is the pathophysiology of hypokalemia that affects muscles?
    Muscle cell resting membrane potentials are hyperpolarized; cell unresponsive to stimulus
  15. How do confusion, lethargy, seizures and coma develop in hyponatremia?
    Cerebral cells swell because capillary osmotic pressure is low. Sodium is greater in cells than in serum.
  16. What are manifestations of a saline deficit?
    Hypotension, tachycardia, depressed fontanels, ↓ urine output
  17. What are causes of saline excesses?
    Hyperaldosteronism, heart failure, excessive IV saline
  18. What are causes of hyponatremia or water excess?
    Too much ADH, excessive 5% dextrose in water (D5W) & diuretics
  19. What are causes of hypokalemia?
    Hyperaldosteronism or abnormal loss through emesis or gastric suction
  20. What is the pathophysiology of hypermagnesemia that affects muscles?
    When Mg ↑, little ACh is present, leading to muscle weakness
  21. What are causes of hypermagnesemia?
    Chronic renal failure or excessive use of antacids such as milk of magnesia
  22. What are manifestations of a hypokalemia?
    Premature/ectopic beats, decreased peristalsis or paralytic ileus
  23. What are causes of clinical dehydration, a combined saline and water deficits?
    Vomiting/diarrhea and inability to drink OR Hyperglycemia and osmotic diuresis
  24. What are manifestations of a saline excesses?
    Edema, weight gain, bounding pulses
  25. What is “third spacing”?
    Fluid that becomes trapped in a potential space.
  26. What are causes of pitting edema?
    ↑ capillary hydrostatic pressure, ↓ capillary osmotic pressure, &blocked lymphatics
  27. What forms of calcium and magnesium are physiologically active?
    Free, ionized, or unattached calcium and magnesium
  28. What are causes of hypomagnesemia?
    Emesis, gastric suction, & fistula drainage

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