Histology - respiratory

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Author:
mfawcett
ID:
129942
Filename:
Histology - respiratory
Updated:
2012-01-23 10:32:30
Tags:
histology respiratory cell lung trachea bronchus bronchiole
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Description:
Words from respiratory histology session
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  1. Respiratory epithelium of the trachea is
    Pseudostratified, columnar, ciliated
  2. Scattered among tracheal ciliated cells are
    Goblet cells
  3. The respiratory epithelium is supported by the
    lamina propria - a loose layer of highly vascular collagenous connective tissue to warm the air
  4. The epithelium and lamina propria are known collectively as:
    Respiratory muscosa
  5. Underneath the lamina propria is the
    submuscosa - numerous glands
  6. Cartilage in the trachea: 3 points
    • Horseshoe shaped
    • Hyaline (70% ground substance)
    • For support
  7. Smooth muscle in the trachea, 3 points
    • Limit anatomical dead space in inspiration
    • Increase air flow during coughing
    • Adjust ventilation/perfusion ratio
  8. Cells responsible for cartilage production, and their differentiated form
    • Chondroblasts
    • Chondrocytes
  9. The bronchi have 5 main differences to the trachea:
    • Less tall pseudostratified columnar epithelium
    • Fewer serous-mucous glands
    • Fewer goblet cells
    • Cartilage in interconnected plates not C shaped rings
    • Smooth muscle becomes more prominent
  10. Diameter of bronchioles
    <1mm
  11. Epithelium in bronchioles
    From ciliated pseudostratified columnar (in large bronchioles) to simple ciliated cuboidal (in terminal and respiratory bronchioles)
  12. Clara cells
    • Nonciliated, round apical surface, dense cytoplasmic granules that secrete a component of surfactant
    • Found in terminal bronchioles
  13. Pneumocyte Type-I cells
    • Flattened cells with thin cytoplasm (Can't be seen with LM)
    • 40% of epithelial cell population
    • Line ~90% of alveolar surface
  14. Pneumocyte type-II cells
    • 60% of cell population
    • occupy 10% of alveolar surface
    • larger, substancial amount of cytoplasm
    • Secrete surfactant
  15. Also present on alveolar surface?
    Scavenging macrophages (dust cells)
  16. Cilia - central microtubular structire
    • Axoneme - capable of generating movement independently of cell
    • Contain peripheral ring of 9 doublet microtubules and 2 singlet microtubules in centre of ring
  17. Axonemes are inserted into?
    Basal bodies: 9 triplets of microtubules in a short cylinder but with no central pair
  18. Surfactant is made of:
    • Lipids and proteins
    • Mainly dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine

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