Histology - respiratory

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  1. Respiratory epithelium of the trachea is
    Pseudostratified, columnar, ciliated
  2. Scattered among tracheal ciliated cells are
    Goblet cells
  3. The respiratory epithelium is supported by the
    lamina propria - a loose layer of highly vascular collagenous connective tissue to warm the air
  4. The epithelium and lamina propria are known collectively as:
    Respiratory muscosa
  5. Underneath the lamina propria is the
    submuscosa - numerous glands
  6. Cartilage in the trachea: 3 points
    • Horseshoe shaped
    • Hyaline (70% ground substance)
    • For support
  7. Smooth muscle in the trachea, 3 points
    • Limit anatomical dead space in inspiration
    • Increase air flow during coughing
    • Adjust ventilation/perfusion ratio
  8. Cells responsible for cartilage production, and their differentiated form
    • Chondroblasts
    • Chondrocytes
  9. The bronchi have 5 main differences to the trachea:
    • Less tall pseudostratified columnar epithelium
    • Fewer serous-mucous glands
    • Fewer goblet cells
    • Cartilage in interconnected plates not C shaped rings
    • Smooth muscle becomes more prominent
  10. Diameter of bronchioles
  11. Epithelium in bronchioles
    From ciliated pseudostratified columnar (in large bronchioles) to simple ciliated cuboidal (in terminal and respiratory bronchioles)
  12. Clara cells
    • Nonciliated, round apical surface, dense cytoplasmic granules that secrete a component of surfactant
    • Found in terminal bronchioles
  13. Pneumocyte Type-I cells
    • Flattened cells with thin cytoplasm (Can't be seen with LM)
    • 40% of epithelial cell population
    • Line ~90% of alveolar surface
  14. Pneumocyte type-II cells
    • 60% of cell population
    • occupy 10% of alveolar surface
    • larger, substancial amount of cytoplasm
    • Secrete surfactant
  15. Also present on alveolar surface?
    Scavenging macrophages (dust cells)
  16. Cilia - central microtubular structire
    • Axoneme - capable of generating movement independently of cell
    • Contain peripheral ring of 9 doublet microtubules and 2 singlet microtubules in centre of ring
  17. Axonemes are inserted into?
    Basal bodies: 9 triplets of microtubules in a short cylinder but with no central pair
  18. Surfactant is made of:
    • Lipids and proteins
    • Mainly dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine
Card Set
Histology - respiratory
Words from respiratory histology session
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